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MADAGASCAR COUNTRY PROJECT Integrated Assessment of Trade-Related Policies and Biological Diversity in the Agriculture Sector Sector : Shrimp Aquaculture Pr Gabrielle L. RAJOELISON Geneva, 26-28 November 2007. OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF THE ASSESSMENT. ▪ General objective :

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MADAGASCAR COUNTRY PROJECT

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Madagascar country project

MADAGASCAR

COUNTRY PROJECT

Integrated Assessment of Trade-Related Policies and Biological Diversity in the Agriculture Sector

Sector : Shrimp Aquaculture

Pr Gabrielle L. RAJOELISON

Geneva, 26-28 November 2007


Overall objective of the assessment

OVERALL OBJECTIVE OF THE ASSESSMENT

▪ General objective :

- Carry out an Integrated Assessment of economical, social and environmental impacts of trade policy related to Shrimp Aquaculture in Madagascar.

▪ Problems :

- Environmental : land extension  degradation of mangroves

- Economical : impacts on trade chains (market access for farmers)

- Social : resource uses ; migration;

costs structure ; benefits transfered to local people


Madagascar country project

FOCUS OF THE PROJECT

▪Driving forces and sector :

- Shrimp aquaculture : strategic resource

- Shrimp exportation : enhancing foreign currency source

- Mangrove : remaining natural and threatened ecosystems

- Mangrove : source of goods and services for rural people

- Rural people (fishermen) poverty

▪Timeframe:

Ex ante assessment

  • Identify biodiversity issues, problems and opportunities related to the sector

  • Identify stakeholders interests (regional authorities, investors, fishermen, local communities)

  • Understand the policy context and identify policy priorities at regional level

  • Conduct impact assessment

    - Develop policy options (scenario)

    Ex-post assessment

    - Monitoringand evaluation


Conceptual framework

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

▪ Driving force :Trade policy and trade measures

- market access

- non- tariff barriers

- taxes

- norms and quality (standards and conformity)

- sanitary measures

▪ Change in land use due to change of production

- extensification (more needs of mangroves spaces),

- landscape state and aspect,

 winner : economical operators, investors

 losers : small fishermen, local people

▪ Potential negative impacts on biodiversity and farmers

- Loss of biodiversity (flora and fauna) because of mangroves deforestation

- Coast erosion (protection against marine stream) / Water and soil pollution

- Loss of farmers (fishermen) resources for subsistence

- Migration flow /people displacement

- Social conflicts between small farmers (appropriation conflicts/ marine use delimitation)


Conceptual framework cont

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK (cont.)

Try to draw linkages between main issues listed in previous

slide:


Conceptual framework cont1

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK (cont.)

  • Human well being

    • Food security

  • Employment

  • Incomes

  • Health/ education

  • Trade agreements and other influences on Agriculture:

    • Price and market for shrimps

  • Standards and quality

  • Sanitary measures

  • Biodiversity and Ecosystems Services :

    • Provisioning

  • (fish, shrimps, wood, etc.

    • Regulating

  • Coast erosion, Waterflow,

  • Carbon sequestration

    • Cultural

  • Landscape Aesthetic, spiritual

    • Supporting

  • Biodiversity conservation

  • (flora and fauna)

  • Primary production

  • Eggs laying

  • Agricultural activities and change in state of land

    • Extent of farms

  • Mangroves fragmentation

  • Migration flows

  • Wood (fuel and poles) overexploitation


Methodology and tools

METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS

▪ Main indicators to measure the impacts :

◦ Economic indicators

Importers standards for export (labelling)

Tax burden on raw materials

Tariffs (market access)

◦ Social indicators

Number of employees

Training programmes for small farmers

◦ Environmental indicators

Percentage of farms per size

Land use intensity (percentage per year)

Change in mangroves area (isolation of fragments)

Abundance and diversity of flora and fauna species


Methodology and tools cont

METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS (cont.)

Screening

Stage A

State of art and bibliography review

Initial workshop to launch project

Aquaculture context

- “Potentiality”

- Biological and ecological

conditions

- Economical environment

- Socio-cultural aspects

Policy context

National and regional priorities

Legislation and code of good practice

Scoping

Determining the focus

- conceptual framework

- identification of sustainability issues

Stage B


Methodology and tools cont1

METHODOLOGY AND TOOLS (cont.)

Determining the focus

- conceptual framework

- identification of sustainability issues

Socio-economical inquiry

  • interview

  • forms

Environmental Impact Assessment

Feasibility study

Stage C

1) Environmental aspect : EIA- - Identification of positive and negative impacts

- Economic valuation of the impacts

- Develop measures to avoid, to mitigate and/or to correct the impacts

2) Economical aspect –

Cost and benefit analysis

Comparison between cost and advantages value

3) Social Aspect –

Multi criteria Analysis

Root cause Analysis

Stage D

Identification of actions for implementation

ACTION PLAN

Validation workshop


Update of assessment process

UPDATE OF ASSESSMENT PROCESS

▪ Main steps of the research work

(conducted at both national and local levels)

  • Launching workshops (information collection)

  • Capacity building

  • Bibliography studies – Review Information

  • Interviews of resources persons

  • Diagnostic analysis – Integrated Assessment process

  • Action Planning

  • Monitoring and evaluation system


Interim results

INTERIM RESULTS

▪ (i)Impacts of the trade policy (identified in the fields)

◦ Environmental impacts :

- Mangrove and wetland conversion (in shrimp ponds)

  • Change of coastal land use (human settlement)

  • Water and soil pollution

  • Reduction in fisheries biomass

    ◦ Economic and social impacts :

  • Land use conflicts (land use change or disruption of access for local communities)

  • Benefits for investors (trends to build inequalities)

  • Migration and employment

    ▪ (ii) Specific impacts on biodiversity (documented)

  • Fragmentation

  • Fuelwood exploitation

  • Loss of Genetic and Biomass reserve


Project implementation update

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION UPDATE

Ministry of Agriculture,

Livestock

and Fisheries

Departemnt

of Water and Forestry

Agronomy School

National Steering Commette

(MEPSPC, MINENVEF, DPRH,

GAPCM, ESSA)

Focal Point

Research Institution

Steering Commette

Monitoring

Facilitation

Coordination

Institutional Structure and Mechanisms


Project implementation update cont

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION UPDATE (cont)

▪ Launching and capacity-building workshops

◦ National workshop

Held in Antananarivo on May 9th to 11th

- Information and communication about :

. UNEP Global Initiative related to trade and biodiversity

. Trade and biodiversity in Madagascar

. Ecocertification

. Sustainability Impact Assessment (SIA) of EU-ACP

. Application exercises

◦ Regional workshop :

Held in Majunga (Boeny Region) on September 12th and 13th.

- Information and communication about :

. Shrimp aquaculture at regional level

. Trade and shrimp aquaculture at regional level

. Industrial aquaculture

. Application exercises


Project implementation update cont1

PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION UPDATE (cont)

RI : Research institutionFP : Focal Point


Major achievements

MAJOR ACHIEVEMENTS

▪ Assess the impacts

▪ Develop policy recommendations

▪ Develop monitoring and evaluation system

▪ Elaborate Country project final report

▪ Organize Validation National Workshop


Main challenges

MAIN CHALLENGES

▪To respect the timeline

▪ Capacity on IA at national and regional levels

▪ Interinstitutional communication

▪ Trade policy Strategy and Action plan (national and regional levels)


Madagascar country project

Misaotra Tompoko


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