Plant of the day
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Plant of the day. Purple foxglove. Chapter 2 - Chemistry. Atomic structure. Ions. Water is a solvent of polar molecules. Biological molecules. Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids. From monomers to polymers. Cellulose. Cellulose products. Secondary metabolites.

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Plant of the day

Plant of the day

Purple foxglove


Chapter 2 chemistry

Chapter 2 - Chemistry


Atomic structure

Atomic structure


Plant of the day

Ions


Water is a solvent of polar molecules

Water is a solvent of polar molecules


Biological molecules

Biological molecules

  • Carbohydrates

  • Lipids

  • Proteins

  • Nucleic acids


From monomers to polymers

From monomers to polymers


Cellulose

Cellulose


Cellulose products

Cellulose products


Secondary metabolites

Secondary metabolites

  • Produced in small amounts

  • Can be very complex (chemically)


Why do plants produce secondary metabolites

Why do plants produce secondary metabolites?

  • Attractants

    • Pollinators

      • Pigments, scents

    • Seed dispersal


Why do plants produce secondary metabolites1

Why do plants produce secondary metabolites?

  • Deter predators


Secondary metabolites as chemoprotectants

Secondary metabolites as chemoprotectants

  • Saponins and fungal resistance

    • avenicin


Milkweed produces a cardiac glycoside

Milkweed produces a cardiac glycoside


Heliconius larvae tolerate cyanogenic glycosides in passion vine

Heliconius larvae tolerate cyanogenic glycosides in passion vine


Volicitin

Volicitin

link


Ecdysone

-ecdysone

  • An insect growth hormone


Cotton produces gossypol

Cotton produces gossypol

trichomes


Phytoecdysones promote molting

Phytoecdysones promote molting


Secondary metabolites used by humans

Secondary metabolites used by humans

  • Alkaloids

    • Over 5000 known kinds

      • 20% of all plants produce alkaloids

    • Acts on CNS


Alkaloids

Alkaloids

  • Capsaicin

link


Capsaicin binds to neurons

Capsaicin binds to neurons

link


Alkaloids1

Alkaloids

  • Poppy

    • Codeine

    • Morphine


Alkaloids2

Alkaloids

  • Nicotine

    • Rust inhibitor

    • Insecticide


Alkaloids3

Alkaloids

  • Ephedrine

Ephedra – Mormon tea plant


Alkaloids4

Alkaloids

  • Vinblastine & vincristine

    • Madagascar periwinkle

    • Anti-cancer drugs

    • 53 tons of leaves to produce 100g drug


Alkaloids5

Alkaloids

  • Quinine (feverbark tree)

    • Anti-malarial

      • 2-3 million deaths per year


Alkaloids6

Alkaloids

  • Reserpine (Snakeroot)

    • Similar to serotonin

    • Used to treat schizophrenia & LSD patients ( a brain depressant/tranquilizer)


Alkaloid poisons

Alkaloid poisons

  • D-tubocurarine (Curare)

    • Blocks acetylcholine receptors

      • Paralyzes muscles, including respiratory organs & heart


Alkaloid poisons1

Alkaloid poisons

  • Coniine (hemlock)

  • Taxine (yew)

  • Solanine (potato)


Terpenes

Terpenes

  • Lipid-based

  • Many types secreted by trichomes


Terpenes1

Terpenes

  • Essential oils

    • Citronellol

    • Camphor

    • Mints (Mentha)


Essential oils

Essential oils

  • Menthol (Eucalyptus)


Terpenes2

Terpenes

  • Pyrethrins


Terpenes3

Terpenes

  • Sterols (hormones)

    • Phyto-ecdysones


Terpenes4

Terpenes

  • Taxol

    • Anti-cancer (ovarian)

    • 0.7g taxol per mature tree

    • $250,000 per kg


Phenolics

Phenolics

  • Salicin

    • Aspirin precursor


Phenolics1

Phenolics

  • Resveratrol

    • Heart disease, cancer

    • Phyto-estrogen


Phenolics2

Phenolics

  • Vanillin


Glycosides

Glycosides

  • Sugar attached to a terpene

  • Categories

    • Cardiac glycosides

    • Cyanogenic glycosides

    • Saponins


Cardiac glycosides

Cardiac glycosides

  • Steroid-based, Stimulates heart

    • Digitoxin

      • Used since 1640AD as a heart medication

      • #1 congestive heart failure drug

      • 3 million patients/yr (U.S.)


Cardiac glycosides1

Cardiac glycosides

  • Oleandrin

    • Oleander – an ornamental shrub

    • Causes cardiac arrest


Cyanogenic glycosides

Cyanogenic glycosides

  • Release cyanide (HCN)

    • Passion vine

    • Pit fruits

link


Saponins

Saponins

  • Diosgenin

    • Toxic, steroid-based


Saponins1

Saponins

  • Diosgenin – precursor of progesterone and cortisone

    • Link 1

    • Link 2


Saponins2

Saponins

  • Ginseng

    • Stomach disorders

    • Nervous disorders


Pyranocoumarins

Pyranocoumarins

  • Calanolide A

    • Promising HIV drug


Plant chemistry research

Plant Chemistry Research

  • Fatty acids and heat tolerance

  • Engineering fatty acid composition in transgenic plants


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