A simple Muon -Detector. Muon trace. t. V. Scintillator. Light guide. HV (2000 V). Discriminator. Discriminator. Coincidence. Counter. Photomultiplier. NIM electronics. Scintillators in LHC experiments Example: ATLAS Tile calorimeter. Light guides. Photomultipliers.
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HV (2000 V)
Scintillators in LHC experiments
Example: ATLAS Tile calorimeter
Computing the number of photons
created by the muon in the scintillator
Step1: Compute the number of electrons given by the PMT
U = R * I
Q = I * t
Resistance: 50 Ω
1 Coulomb = 1 As = 6.24150965×1018 electrons
Therefore: Q = U * t / R
For a triangle: Q = U * t / 2 * R
Step 2: Properties of the PMT
Electron amplification of the PMT: VE = ~106
Efficiency of the Photo-Cathode: EP = 0.1
Number of photons generated by a muon crossing the scintillator:
Nphoton = (U * t * 6.24 * 1018) / (2 * R * VE * EP)
Nphoton = (U * t * 3.12 * 1014) / R
Literature: 20.000 photons / cm
Sensitivity of the human eye: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_cell
A bit of mathematics (without formulas)
Muons or noise?
What can be measured with our detector?