A simple muon detector
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A simple Muon -Detector. Muon trace. t. V. Scintillator. Light guide. HV (2000 V). Discriminator. Discriminator. Coincidence. Counter. Photomultiplier. NIM electronics. Scintillators in LHC experiments Example: ATLAS Tile calorimeter. Light guides. Photomultipliers.

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A simple Muon -Detector

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A simple muon detector

A simple Muon-Detector

Muon trace

t

V

Scintillator

Light guide

HV (2000 V)

Discriminator

Discriminator

Coincidence

Counter

Photomultiplier

NIM electronics


A simple muon detector

Scintillators in LHC experiments

Example: ATLAS Tile calorimeter


A simple muon detector

Light guides


A simple muon detector

Photomultipliers

  • Reasons for noise:

  • Thermal electrons (dark current)

  • Light leaks


A simple muon detector

Computing the number of photons

created by the muon in the scintillator

Step1: Compute the number of electrons given by the PMT

U = R * I

Q = I * t

Resistance: 50 Ω

1 Coulomb = 1 As = 6.24150965×1018 electrons

Therefore: Q = U * t / R

For a triangle: Q = U * t / 2 * R

Step 2: Properties of the PMT

Additional parameters:

Electron amplification of the PMT: VE = ~106

Efficiency of the Photo-Cathode: EP = 0.1

Number of photons generated by a muon crossing the scintillator:

Nphoton = (U * t * 6.24 * 1018) / (2 * R * VE * EP)

Nphoton = (U * t * 3.12 * 1014) / R

t

V

Literature: 20.000 photons / cm

Sensitivity of the human eye: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_cell


A simple muon detector

A bit of mathematics (without formulas)

Random Coincidences

Noise signals

Muons or noise?

Discriminator 1

Discriminator 2

Coincidence module

Muon?

Muon?

  • How likely is the overlapping of noise pulses on the two channels?

    • What parameters does the formula depend on?

    • How does the formula look like?

  • How can we measure the rate of random coincidences with our set-up?


A simple muon detector

What can be measured with our detector?

  • Muon rate

    • Are there less muons inside of a building (due to shielding) than outside?

    • Does the muon flux depend on the time of day?

  • Angular distribution of the muons

  • Muon life time (would require third PMT or a bigger scintillator)

    • A muon that decays produces a signal with a higher amplitude than that of a muon that just crosses the scintillator

  • Muon velocity (would required precise clock)

  • Other sources of radiation (e.g. beta decay)


Application volcano tomography

Application: Volcano-Tomography


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