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Language. Can you write the title please?. Language. In groups c an you think of a situation where language has got in the way of straightforward communication? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tGJnynLq8Lo. Language.

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Language
Language

  • Can you write the title please?


Language1
Language

  • In groups can you think of a situation where language has got in the way of straightforward communication?

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tGJnynLq8Lo


Language2
Language

  • Can you think of an example where language has been abused to serve some other end than the neutral transfer of information?

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Af44Slin7lg



Freedom fighters or terrorists
Freedom fighters or terrorists?

  • When the ANC were fighting a guerrilla war against the apartheid regime in South Africa were they freedom fighters or terrorists? Justify your choice.


Which phrase should we use why
Which phrase should we use? Why?

  • Black person?

  • Person of colour?

  • Coloured?

  • Afro-american/european/caribean?

  • Non-white?

  • Negro?

  • Nigger?


Denotation and connotation
Denotation and connotation

  • All the words in the previous slide have the same denotation (they refer to the same thing) but have different connotations (secondary meanings and inferences).


Denotation and connotation1
Denotation and connotation

  • In the following slides decide what the denotation is (what do the words stand for) and discuss the connotations of the words


Slender skinny thin
Slender, skinny, thin

What is the denotation of these words? What are their connotations?


Stubborn steadfast firm
Stubborn, steadfast, firm,

What is the denotation of these words? What are their connotations?


Praise flatter commend
Praise, flatter, commend

What is the denotation of these words? What are their connotations?


Combative belligerent feisty argumentative
Combative, belligerent, feisty, argumentative

What is the denotation of these words? What are their connotations?


In your journals list as many different words as you can for
In your journals list as many different words as you can for;

clever


In your journals list as many different words as you can for1
In your journals list as many different words as you can for;

Drunk


In your journals list as many different words as you can for2
In your journals list as many different words as you can for;

Stupid


The alamo american view

Rewrite this from a Mexican point of view – Due next Monday.

The Alamo – American view

  • The Siege of the Alamo is the most famous fight in Texas history. In 1836, around 225 brave Texas revolutionaries sacrificed their lives defending a post they believed essential to their cause. For many Americans, the Alamo is a symbol of patriotic sacrifice, bravery and loyalty.

  • In 1835 Texan revolutionaries had liberated the city of San Antonio from Mexican troops. Within the city stood its mission, the town’s strongest fortification, known as the Alamo. Around 225 colonists were at the Alamo under the leadership of Col. James Bowie and Lt. Col. William B. Travis. The defenders resolved to be a barrier between the Mexican government and the other Texas colonies.

  • Their resolve was tested on February 23rd, as General Santa Anna’s Army of 2,500 arrived to enforce government policy. When Santa Anna sent a courier demanding the Alamo’s surrender, Travis defiantly replied with cannon fire.

  • Travis wrote a plea to other Texans near Houston, “We want men and provisions. Send them to us.” Vowing to never surrender or retreat, he pledged: “Victory or Death!” But help would not come.

  • Santa Anna’s forces lay siege to the Alamo for 12 days before a final assault on March 6th when 1,800 troops stormed the walls on the orders of their government. Travis was among the first to die. All Texan fighters were killed or executed, taking about 600 Mexican troops with them.

  • The Alamo defenders remained at their post, fighting for Texas Independence until the last and buying time for the young government to organize. Their memory inspires courage in Americans in any situation demanding patriotic sacrifice.


Lesson 2 language and thought
Lesson 2 - Monday.Language and Thought

  • Are our thoughts limited by our language? (the “Sapir-Whorf hypothesis”)


Newspeak 1984
Newspeak - 1984 Monday.

  • Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwell's novel 1984. The basic idea behind Newspeak was to remove all shades of meaning from language, leaving simple dichotomies (pleasure and pain, happiness and sadness) which reinforce the total dominance of the State. A staccato rhythm of short syllables was also a goal, further reducing the need for deep thinking about language.

  • In addition, words with opposite meanings were removed as redundant, so "bad" became "ungood." Words with similar meanings were also removed, so "best" became "doubleplusgood." In this manner, as many words as possible were removed from the language.

  • The underlying theory of Newspeak is that if something can't be said, then it can't be thought. One question raised by this is whether we can communicate the need for freedom, or organize an uprising, if we don't have the words for either?

  • Ludwig Wittgenstein "The limits of my language mean the limits to my world.“ DISCUSS


Language and thought
Language and thought Monday.

  • If surgeons, mathematicians, lawyers can use their medical, mathematical and legal language to think in highly sophisticated ways about their subjects, perhaps different natural languages lend themselves to thinking about nature in completely different ways….


Really
Really? Monday.

  • “Italian is designed for love; we speak with our friends in French; we use English to talk to our dogs….

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d9D1TRgf04M&feature=related

Are different languages “better” for different tasks?3 minutes to discuss this.


Blue green
Blue/green Monday.

  • Many languages do not have separate terms for blue and green, instead using a cover term for both. For example, in Vietnamese both tree leaves and the sky are xanh. How does affect our view of the world?


No left or right
No left or right! Monday.

  • Pormpuraaw, a small Aboriginal community in northern Australia define space relative to an observer. They use cardinal-direction terms — north, south, east, and west — to define space. This means you have to say things like "There's an ant on your southeast leg" or "Move the cup to the north northwest a little bit." One obvious consequence of speaking such a language is that you have to stay oriented at all times. The normal greeting is "Where are you going?" and the answer should be something like " Southsoutheast, in the middle distance." If you don't know which way you're facing, you can't even get past "Hello.“!


A world language
A world language? Monday.

What would be the advantages and disadvantages if everyone in the world spoke the same language?Write a paragraph in your journal.


Who does not know another language does not know his own goethe
“Who does not know another language does not know his own” Goethe

What can you learn about your own language by studying another? How does learning another language increase your knowledge of the world?


Is the sapir whorf hypothesis true
Is the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis true? own” Goethe

  • Einstein (amongst many) claimed to think best in pictures with no words

  • We sometimes struggle to find the right words to express what we are thinking – this suggest thoughts are prior to language

  • If language determines thought – how do new words appear?

  • Perhaps language just influences our thought.

Have you ever thought about how you think? WHEN do you think the best? In words? Images? Both? With sounds/smells?



Ambiguity
Ambiguity own” Goethe

Flying planes can be dangerous.

(Can you explain the ambiguity?)


Ambiguity1
Ambiguity own” Goethe

They saw Mrs Jones and a dog sitting under a table

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity2
Ambiguity own” Goethe

Jan tickled the woman with a feather duster

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity3
Ambiguity own” Goethe

Refuse to be put in the basket

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity4
Ambiguity own” Goethe

Nicole wanted to hear Justin Bieber sing really badly

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity5
Ambiguity own” Goethe

Visiting relatives can be boring


Ambiguity6
Ambiguity own” Goethe

Many poor students are on scholarships

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity7
Ambiguity own” Goethe

  • Eerik ate bacon on the sofa

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity8
Ambiguity own” Goethe

As Jessica went to head the ball we saw her duck

What are the two meanings?


Ambiguity9
Ambiguity own” Goethe

He is opposed to taxes which damage incentives

What are the two meanings?


Problems in translation
Problems in own” GoetheTranslation


Translation
Translation own” Goethe


Translation1
Translation own” Goethe


Translation2
Translation own” Goethe


Translation3
Translation own” Goethe


Translation4
Translation own” Goethe


Translation5
Translation own” Goethe


Translation6
Translation own” Goethe


Translation7
Translation own” Goethe


Translation8
Translation own” Goethe


Translation9
Translation own” Goethe


Google translate
Google translate own” Goethe

  • Google Translate

  • “Watch outthat you don’t hit your head on the low beam”


Lesson 3 - own” GoetheBut what do words actually mean?http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kJlxwB4VhIhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnHv7NGWb0k


The problem of meaning
The problem of meaning…. own” Goethe

The montillation of traxoline

It is very important that you learn about Traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of Zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristerate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it into quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our most lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge.


The problem of meaning1
The problem of meaning…. own” Goethe

The montillation of traxoline

It is very important that you learn about Traxoline. Traxoline is a new form of Zionter. It is montilled in Ceristanna. The Ceristannians gristerate large amounts of fevon and then bracter it into quasel traxoline. Traxoline may well be one of our most lukized snezlaus in the future because of our zionter lescelidge.

  • What is traxoline?

  • Where is traxoline montilled?

  • How is traxoline quaselled?

  • Why is it important to know about traxoline?


  • You can answer the questions although you have no idea what the words mean!!

  • If you don’t know the meaning of key words in a sentence you will not understand it.

  • Traxoline is a new form of Zionter – do we know this is true?

    Important because you must know what a sentence means before you can decide whether or not it is true.

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6kJlxwB4VhI


Does this happen in lessons
Does this happen in lessons?! the words mean!!

“the earthquake was caused by movement along the subduction zone. Here the Cocos oceanic plate meets the Pacific plate“


Does this happen in lessons1
Does this happen in lessons?! the words mean!!

“the earthquake was caused by movement along the subduction zone. Here the Cocos oceanic plate meets the Pacific plate“

“What caused the earthquake in Mexico City?”


Does this happen in lessons2
Does this happen in lessons?! the words mean!!

“the earthquake was caused by movement along the subduction zone. Here the Cocos oceanic plate meets the Pacific plate“

“What caused the earthquake in Mexico City?”

“Movement along the subduction zone”


Does this happen in lessons3
Does this happen in lessons?! the words mean!!

“the earthquake was caused by movement along the subduction zone. Here the Cocos oceanic plate meets the Pacific plate“

“What caused the earthquake in Mexico City?”

“Movement along the subduction zone”

Just because we know the word to use, does not mean we understand what is happening!


Physics teacher
Physics teacher the words mean!!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJe5flDNGcU

  • A Physics teacher from Northern Ireland demonstrates that knowing the word for something is not the same as understanding or explaining it (watch up to 5 mins 20 secs)


Nonsense poetry jabberwocky
Nonsense poetry - Jabberwocky the words mean!!

Twas brillig, and the slithy toves

Did gyre and gimble in the wabe:

All mimsy were the borograoves’

And the mome raths outgrabe.


Theories of meaning
Theories of Meaning the words mean!!


What is a table
What is a table? the words mean!!

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sc3H4UkkZgk


Definition theory
Definition theory the words mean!!

Define as precisely as you can the followingwords

i. triangle ii. stool iii. love



Problems with definition theory1
Problems with definition theory the words mean!!

  • Only mathematical words can be defined precisely

  • Definitions depend on using other words!

  • In order to stop being trapped in an endless circle of words, language must surely connect with the world.


Denotation theory
Denotation theory the words mean!!

  • A meaningful words “stands” for something, whereas a meaningless word does not (see earlier)

  • What do the following words ‘stand for’?


France
France the words mean!!


Dog the words mean!!


Problems
Problems the words mean!!

  • Can you think of words which would be difficult to define by finding something they “stand for”?


Problems1
Problems the words mean!!

  • Can you think of words which would be difficult to define by finding something they “stand for”?

  • Multiplication, freedom, wisdom?


Problems2
Problems! the words mean!!

  • Denotation theory does not work with abstract words

  • Even a word like “Einstein” cannot literally be Einstein because it would become meaningless when he died.


Image theory
Image Theory the words mean!!

  • The meaning of a word is the mental image it stands for

  • In your groups can you describe your mental images to each other for the following words? (THINK before you speak)


Freedom
Freedom the words mean!!


Multiplication
Multiplication the words mean!!


Red the words mean!!


Terrorist
Terrorist the words mean!!


Physics
Physics the words mean!!


Love the words mean!!


Problems3
Problems! the words mean!!

  • We can never be sure that a person understands the meaning of a word the same we do if they may have a different “image” in their mind


Lesson 4
Lesson 4 the words mean!!

  • Problems of meaning continued

  • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hnHv7NGWb0k


Meaning as know how
Meaning as know-how the words mean!!

  • You know the meaning of a word when you know how to use it correctly


Meaning as know how1
Meaning as know-how the words mean!!

  • Demonstrate you know the meaning of the following words by including them in a sentence (in your journals);

  • Eat, dog, dusk, random, chlorophyl, fascist, quantum-tunneling.


Old? the words mean!!


Bald? the words mean!!


How useful are vague words
How useful are vague words? the words mean!!

Without thinking too much, write down a figure (number) for the following;

  • John lives near school. How close does he live?

  • Eerik is a heavy smoker. How many cigarettes a day does he smoke?

  • Mr Smith is middle- aged. How old is he?

  • Nafisha’s mother is rich. How much money does she have in the bank?


A further confusion use of metaphors
A further confusion! the words mean!!Use of metaphors


Metaphor
Metaphor the words mean!!

Jan has his head in the clouds


Nadia the words mean!! has put her roots down in Warsaw


My brother is a butcher
My brother is a butcher the words mean!!?


My dentist is a butcher
My dentist is a butcher the words mean!!!


Metaphors
Metaphors the words mean!!

  • Can you think of common metaphors in your language that have no English equivalent or don’t make sense in English? Write them down.


Labels
Labels the words mean!!

Am I a pile of bricks or a work of Art?


Labels1
Labels the words mean!!

  • Language has basically 2 types of words;

  • Proper names which we give to things such as people, places and pets.

  • The vast majority of other words which do not describe a unique thing but which are general in nature. For this reason we can simply think of language as a labeling system.


Labels can be useful
Labels can be useful! the words mean!!

  • A good “label” enables us to predict how an object will behave. For example – stool.


Labels2
Labels the words mean!!

  • What predictions can you make from the following labels?

  • Dog

  • Tiger

  • Teacher

  • Bread

  • Mushroom


Classification
Classification the words mean!!

  • Mr Porter is going to give each group a list of words. Can you classify them into 3 groups? (Using whatever criteria you wish).


Different labels
Different labels the words mean!!

  • There are many ways to find similarities and difference between objects, so the label or classification we use can be different in different circumstances.

  • Baggage would be classified differently by a baggage handler, designer or traveller.


Classification1
Classification the words mean!!

  • What are the main advantages and disadvantages to classifying people by their

  • Nationality

  • Star sign

  • Race


Stereotypes
Stereotypes the words mean!!

  • A danger of labeling is that our labels can easily harden into stereotypes


Stereotypes1
Stereotypes the words mean!!

What stereotypes, if any, do you think exist concerning the following groups;

  • Americans

  • Feminists

  • Lawyers

  • Buddhists

  • Computer hackers

  • IB students


Euphemisms
Euphemisms the words mean!!

  • Substituting mild or neutral sounding words for a negative sounding one

  • How many can you think of?


Rest room
Rest room? the words mean!!


Passed away
Passed away the words mean!!


Differently abled
Differently – abled? the words mean!!



Military euphemisms
Military euphemisms the words mean!!



Collateral damage
Collateral damage the words mean!!


Friendly fire
Friendly fire the words mean!!



Area denial munitions
Area denial munitions the words mean!!


Ministry of defence
Ministry of Defence the words mean!!


Resettlement
Resettlement the words mean!!


Revealing and concealing
Revealing and concealing the words mean!!

  • I have invited an attractive blonde to the party

  • I have invited a cellist to the party

  • I have invited a marathon runner to the party

  • I have invited a lesbian to the party

  • How would YOU like to be described?


Revealing and concealing1
Revealing and concealing the words mean!!

  • They are all the same person – how does the words you choose to describe a person affect people’s perception? How would YOU like to be described? Describe yourself in your journals.


Lessons 5 and 6
Lessons 5 and 6 the words mean!!

  • On the corridor have been stuck some language quotations. Go round in pairs and try to explain to each other what each quote means – try to think of examples which illustrate each quote.

  • You have 33 minutes(3 minutes for each quotation).


Essay task 800 words
Essay task the words mean!! – 800 words

  • Your task is to choose one quote and write an essay.

  • Explain what you think the quote means giving examples.

  • Give (and explain) two examples from IB subjects that you study to illustrate the quote

  • Choose (and explain) a personal experiences which is relevant to the quote

  • Due next Monday 10th October 2011


Today
Today the words mean!!

  • Working on your essays in either

  • Room 104

  • IB Computer room

  • Dining room

  • Library

  • Common room

  • Mr Porter will circulate to help you (make sure you are working!)


Linking language to perception
Linking language to the words mean!!perception


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