Nats 101 the world we create
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NATS 101 : “The World We Create”. Welcome Back! Remember Project 2 Due TODAY!. 3/23. Ozone Depletion. Acid Rain. Global Warming. Where Were We?. In Unit 2 we discussed environmental change, including natural and man-made effects.

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Nats 101 the world we create

NATS 101: “The World We Create”

  • Welcome Back!

  • Remember Project 2 Due

  • TODAY!

3/23


Nats 101 the world we create

Ozone Depletion

Acid Rain

Global Warming

Where Were We?

  • In Unit 2 we discussed environmental change, including natural and man-made effects.

    • We talked about how some of the substances we put into the atmosphere are negatively affecting our environment.


Unit 3 new materials to build or to waste

Unit 3:New materials,to build or to waste?

Today we start Unit 3! Let’s talk about how we are positively impacting our environment


Nats 101 the world we create

  • Power Generation

  • Used to fuel many things, from cars, to furnaces, to electricity generation.84% Petroleum use

  • Materials SynthesisUsed to make a variety of products/materials

  • 16% Petroleum use

Petroleum

We have seen that petroleum is used primarily for two things:


Nats 101 the world we create

What are some things made from petroleum?

  • Plastics

  • Cosmetics

  • Fertilizer/ Insecticide

  • Rubber Products

  • AND MORE


Nats 101 the world we create

The Challenge

How do you get from this

CHEMICAL REACTIONS!!

to these?


Today s expected outcomes

Today’s Expected Outcomes

  • Recognize and describe the characteristics of a chemical reaction;

  • Describe and follow the necessary steps to synthesize a useful product;

  • Recognize materials that have positively impacted our environment.


Chemical reaction you decide

Chemical Reaction? You decide

Number your paper 1-10. Designate whether the situation describes a chemical reaction(True) or does not (False)

1. Rubbing alcohol evaporating from surface of your skin

2. Burning a candle

3. Melting a sugar cube

4. Cooking an egg

5. Freezing water (liquid water turning to ice)

6. A photographer’s flash blub flashing

7. Leaving a wagon outside to rust

8. Accidentally spilling bleach on your favorite jeans

9. Taking a few TUMS after a particularly spicy dinner

10. Butter melting on warm toast

Keep your paper, we will revisit these at the end of class.


Nats 101 the world we create

Chemical Reaction? You decide

Let’s examine a few more examples; jot down some quick notes:

Videos:

Reaction or No Reaction?

What is happening in the video?

What does the process start with and what does it end with?

Does this represent a chemical reaction? Why or why not?


Nats 101 the world we create

What is a Chemical Reaction?

Use information and rules you used to distinguish chemical reactions from non-reactions in the True/False activity, as well as the information you’ve gathered from the videos to answer this question.

Discuss your ideas with your teammates . . .

Think about . . .

How you decided what was truly a chemical reaction and what was not?

What characterizes a chemical reaction?


Chemical reactions definition

Chemical Reactions: Definition

-A shuffling or rearrangement of chemical building blocks (atoms)

-Leads to the formation of products that have different properties than the reactants used to create them.

Reactants: all substances that react during the change

Products: all substances produced after the change


Chemical reactions representation

Chemical Reactions: Representation

Ball and Stick Models

Space Filling Models

Words:

Magnesium wire + oxygen gas  magnesium oxide

Letters and Symbols

2Mg(s) + O2(g)  2MgO(s)


Chemical reactions representation some important facts to consider

Chemical Reactions: RepresentationSome important facts to consider

  • Atoms are not created or destroyed in a chemical reaction; molecules may be broken apart and recombined to form new molecules

  • The molecules on either side of a reaction arrow may not be the same (nor do they have to be)

    * All atoms on one side of the equation must be equal to those on the other, the same number of each type of atom must appear on both sides of the equation

2 Mg(s) + O2(g) 2 MgO(s)


Chemical reactions a closer look

Chemical Reactions: A Closer Look

AgNO3(aq) +KCl(aq)  AgCl(s)+KNO3(aq)

Can you describe what is happening in this reaction?

Can you detect a pattern?

Displacement Reaction: reactants change partners to create new products


A closer look displacement reactions

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What happens when we mix them?

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+

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A Closer Look:Displacement Reactions

AgNO3(aq) +KCl(aq)  AgCl(s)+KNO3(aq)

Who are the players?

Ag+, (NO3)- , K+, Cl-


Displacement reactions

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+

+

+

+

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+

+

+

+

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Displacement Reactions

AgNO3(aq) +KCl(aq)  AgCl(s)+KNO3(aq)

How do they change partners?

+ KNO3 (aq)

AgCl(s)

AgNO3(aq) +KCl(aq) 

In General: MN +PQ  MQ + PN


Let s examine displacement reactions

Let’s Examine: Displacement Reactions

  • Follow the directions on the handout in order to experiment with displacement reactions.

  • Be sure to record:

    • Observations of the reactants before you combine them, and products after you combine them (i.e. what do they look like)

    • The chemical formulas of the reactants you are combining.

  • Attempt to write the full chemical equation of each reaction

**Remember in a displacement reaction: MN + PQ MQ + PN


Results what did you see

PRECIPITATES

Results: What did you see?

A+B:K2CO3(aq) + K3PO4(aq)  K3PO4(aq)+ K2CO3(aq)

(clear liquid) (clear liquid) (clear liquid)

A+C:K2CO3(aq) + CuCl2(aq)  2 KCl(aq) + CuCO3(s)

(clear liquid) (blue liquid) (blue solid)

A+D:K2CO3(aq) + CoCl2(aq) 2 KCl (aq) + CoCO3(s)

(clear liquid) (red liquid) (purple solid)


Results what did you see1

Results: What did you see?

B+C: 2K3PO4(aq) + 3CuCl2(aq)  6KCl (aq) + Cu3(PO4)2(s)

(clear liquid) (blue liquid) (dark blue solid)

B+D:2K3PO4(aq) + 3CoCl2(aq)  6KCl(aq) + Co3(PO4)2(s)

(clear liquid) (red liquid) (dark blue solid)

C+D:CuCl2(aq) + CoCl2(aq)  CuCl2(aq) + CoCl2(aq)

(blue liquid) (red liquid) (gray liquid)


How do we know there was a chemical reaction

How do we know there was a chemical reaction?

  • Color change

  • Formation of a precipitate: an insoluble product

  • Energy is released (in the form of heat, light, etc. we have seen these is the past, do you remember what they are called?)

Based on our results and all of the reactions we have seen, how do we know a chemical reaction has happened?

We often see the effects of a chemical reactions in the difference between the reactants and products.


Final component of chemical reactions

Final Component of Chemical Reactions

We were able to merely combine reactants and observe a reaction, this isn’t always the case. Can you think of any reason why not?

Necessary Conditions . . .

Temperature: more energy in the system = more collisions*

Pressure: more pressure mean less space for molecules to move around = more collisions

Concentration: more molecules to react = more collisions

Presence of a Catalyst: a compound that in some way effects the progress of a chemical reaction, without being changed or consumed in the reaction

All of these are components of a set of carefully controlled conditions, required to effectively generate the desired products, and are collectively called

Reaction Conditions


Creation of new materials

Creation of New Materials

Scientist manipulate the products of chemical reactions (usually many reactions in many steps) to create useful products.

Scientists use what they know about chemical reactions, reactants and products to design and synthesize products to meet particular needs.


New materials

New Materials

We can break the creation of new materials into 3 steps:

Let’s examine these 3 ideas in terms of the precipitate we made in the previous displacement reactions.

K2CO3(aq) + CoCl2(aq)  2 KCl(aq) + CoCO3(s)

(clear liquid) (red liquid) (purple solid)

Design

Synthesis

Processing

We’ve created a pigment that can be used to color many different materials


New materials design

New Materials: Design

When designing new materials what considerations might scientists need to think about?

Objectives: What are we trying to make, what purposes do we need to accomplish, yield, product purity

Limitations: Costs (equipment and raw materials), space, safety, environmental impact, reliability (of equipment and process), flexibility (in design and process)

What could we make with our pigment?


New materials synthesis

New Materials: Synthesis

What do we mean by the word synthesis?

In terms of synthesis, what might scientists need to think about when creating new materials?

Scientists often consider. . .

-the specific reactants and sequences of reactions that can be utilized in order to create the desired products

-the best set of reaction conditions to maximize the yield.

We’ve already synthesized the pigment

K2CO3 + CoCl2 CoCO3 + 2KCl


New materials processing

New Materials: Processing

What additional steps need to be accomplished in order to create a useful product?

Products must often be:

- separated (i.e. centrifugation)

- filtered

- distilled

- purified

- combined with additional materials

  • What about our Pigment?

  • Separate out of solution

  • Transform it from a powder to a useful product


Creating a product it s your turn

Creating a Product: It’s your turn!

You and your group members are going to become chemical engineers

You must process this pigment, in order to create a useful paint product.

Directions:

Each group of 3 students will receive the following supplies:

  • 1 gram of pigment (CoCO3)

  • 1 small vial of Linseed Oil (solvent)

  • 1 mL pipette (for measuring the oil)

  • 1 plastic teaspoon (for measuring the pigment)

  • “Paintbrush” to test your paint

  • 1 plate to perform experiments on


Creating a product it s your turn1

Creating a Product: It’s your turn

YOUR TASK: Using these supplies, work with your group to determine the ratio of pigment to oil that yields the “best” paint.

Be Prepared to:

  • Define what “best” means to your group; (i.e. dries the fastest, has the deepest color, etc.)

  • Share your recipe for the best paint


What did you produce

What did you produce?

  • What was your best product?

  • What was the recipe for that product?

You’ve taken raw materials (pigment) and transformed them into paint, what are some other materials that have transformed your world?


Drastic transformations materials that have changed our world

Drastic Transformations:Materials that have changed our world

  • Medication/Pharmaceuticals

  • Agrochemicals

  • Plastics and Elastomers

    (You’ll learn more about these on Thursday!)

  • Fuels

  • Detergents (soaps, shampoos, cleaners)

  • Flavorings


Chemical reaction you decide let s revisit our list

Chemical Reaction?: You decideLet’s revisit our list

Number your paper 1-10. Designate whether the situation describes a chemical reaction (True) or does not (False)

1. Rubbing alcohol evaporating from surface of your skin

2. Burning a candle

3. Melting a sugar cube

4. Cooking an egg

5. Freezing water (liquid water turning to ice)

6. A photographer’s flash blub flashing

7. Leaving a wagon outside to rust

8. Accidentally spilling bleach on your favorite jeans

9. Taking a few TUMS after a particularly spicy dinner

10. Butter melting on warm toast

False

True

False

True

False

True

True

True

True

False


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