Crafting your query by using special operators
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Crafting Your Query by Using Special Operators. By using special characters and operators, such as ? , AND , NOT , ( ) , OR , and quotation marks around a phrase , you can fine-tune your search query and increase the accuracy of its results. Quoted Phrases.

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Crafting Your Query by Using Special Operators

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Crafting your query by using special operators

Crafting Your Query by Using Special Operators

  • By using special characters and operators, such as ?, AND, NOT, ( ), OR, and quotation marks around a phrase, you can fine-tune your search query and increase the accuracy of its results.


Quoted phrases

Quoted Phrases

  • To search for a phrase, a proper name, or a set of words in a specific order, put them in double quotes.

  • A query with terms in quotes finds results containing the exact quoted phrase. For example,  “Larry Page” finds sources containing the phrase “Larry Page” exactly.


Crafting your query by using special operators

AND

  • Add AND to any word you want to find in your results.

  • To find sources with a particular term, put AND in front of the word in the query.

  • AND means "include all of the words.“


Crafting your query by using special operators

NOT

  • Precede each term you do not want to appear in any result with the word NOT.

  • To find sources without a particular term, put NOT in front of the word in the query.

  • NOT means "exclude."

  • NOT indicates that you want to subtract or exclude results that contain a specific term.


Crafting your query by using special operators

OR

  • Specify synonyms or alternative forms with an uppercase OR.

  • OR means "include any of the words."

  • For example, if you're looking for info on music and dancing enter music AND dancing. Your search will bring back results that only include both those words. Now if you want any sources about music and any sources about dancing (the two of them do not have to appear in the same source), use OR.


Crafting your query by using special operators

?

  • Use ? to truncate.

  • Add ? to the root of a word to search for any source containing the root.

  • For example, if you type Comput?, your search will bring back results that contain –comput + any ending. Thus, it will retrieve compute, computer, computers, computing, computability, computation, etc.


Crafting your query by using special operators

( )

  • Use parenthesis to group similar items.

  • For example, if you type (car OR dog), this means that you are looking for info on a pet, but are uncertain whether you are looking for a cat or dog.


Omit initial articles

Omit initial articles

  • A, an, the...

  • For example, if you are looking for the book The Motorcycle Diaries, type “motorcycle diaries.”


Author s name

Author’s name

  • Always use Last name, First name.

  • For example, if you want to retrieve books by Mark Twain, type Twain, Mark.


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