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The Rise of Mussolini. Lydia Barbieri. Isabella Ientile. “Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”. World War I– The Western Front. Problems In Italy After World War I.

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The Rise of Mussolini

Lydia Barbieri

Isabella Ientile

“Everything in the state, nothing outside the state, nothing against the state.”

problems in italy after world war i
Problems In Italy After World War I
  • Italy was exhausted, economicallystrained and vulnerable to political disorder.
  • Italians were unemployed.
  • Italy was high in national debts.
  • Inflationwas spiraling.
  • Victor Emmanuel III was a inefficient ruler.
  • Citizens were open to political change.

Victor Emmanuel III

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Treaty of Versailles

  • Italy’s participation in the war gave them no respect at Versailles.
  • Italy had not been given the land that is was promised at the secret Treaty of London.
        • Treaty of London entitled Italy to obtain land.
  • This helped to lead to unrest in many parts of Italy.
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In 1919 after the war, Mussolini founded a new political organization called the fascists.

  • Fascism is a system of government under a dictator. The government suppresses the opposition by terrorand censorship and a policy of nationalism and racism.

“Fascism conceives of the State as an absolute, in comparison with which all individuals or groups are relative, only to be conceived in their relation to the State.” – Benito Mussolini

Fascism

Italian men marching in support of Fascism

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Mussolini Gains Control of Government

  • Mussolini promoted strong nationalism and patriotism.
  • Mussolini spoke of the need for the Italian people to restore the glory of the ancient Roman Empire.
  • In 1921, Mussolini and 34 of his associates were elected to the Italian Parliament.

Mussolini- Political Leader

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Control of Government- “II Duce” or “the leader”

  • In 1922…
  • Mussolini ordered his followers, the “Black Shirts”, to participate in a march of Rome.
    • King Victor Emmanuel III invited Mussolini to join a coalition and granted him a Fascist Cabinet – Strongly helped gain more power!
  • Mussolini demanded the king appoint him Prime Minister and created a dictatorship.
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Mussolini attackedEthiopia in 1936 causing race-consciousness in Italy to heighten.

    • The invasion led to laws preventing interracial marriages.
  • 1938- Adopted anti-Jewish laws similar to those in Germany.
  • 1939- Mussolini made an alliance with Hitler and joined the German side in WWII.

Italy- Post WWII

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1939- Fascists launched a campaign to conquer Albania, Italy was depleted of war material.

    • Resulted in rationing of food and supplies in Italy.
    • The army performed badly.
  • Mussolini’s popularity plummeted.

Italy During WWII

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Italy During WWII

The Pact of Steel was signed by A. Hitler and B. Mussolini on May 22, 1939, formalizing the 1936 Rome-Berlin Axis agreement, linking the two countries politically and militarily.

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Allied forces landed in Sicily on July 10, 1943,

Italy-Near End of WWII

provoking rebellion in the Fascist ranks. On July 25 the Fascist Party’s governing body voted to hand executive power over to King Victor Emmanuel III, and the king had Mussolini arrested.

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Hitler ordered the rescue of his old ally, and on September 12, Mussolini was captured from his mountain prison.

  • The Germans installed Mussolini as the leader of a new government called the Italian Social Republic in German Territory.

Italy-Near End of WWII

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Italians began to realize that many of Mussolini’s claims were not true.

      • Many of Mussolini’s plans failed.
        • Mussolini planned to make Italy self-sufficient and this made most things more expensive.
        • Wages stayed lowwhile prices raised.

Fall of Mussolini

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While he grew more wheat there was less olive oils and fruits, which were important exports.
  • Italians were worse of by the 1930s as the Great Depression hits the world.
  • Italians did not like Mussolini’s association with Hitler, especially when he tried persecuting the Jews.

Fall of Mussolini

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Death of a Dictator

  • 1945- the ranks of Italian resistance fighters swelled and the Allied armies advanced north, Mussolini fled toward Switzerland hidden by the German Army.
  • April 27 Mussolini was captured by the Italian communist partisans.
  • April 28 at Giulino di Mezzegra, Mussolini was executed with his mistress, Clara Petacci.
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Questions

  • What were some of the problems that Italy faced after WWI?
  • Why did Italians feel betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles?
  • What is fascism, and how did Mussolini gain control of the Italian government?
  • How did Italy fare during WWII?
  • What happened to Mussolini?
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Work Cited

  • http://www.rockingham.k12.va.us/EMS/WWI/WWI.html- accessed 5/30/03- This site is where we found the WWI picture from.
  • http://www.auburn.edu/~sealyke/wwii/riseofmussolini.html- accessed 5/30/03- This site provided the most information about all topics in our slideshow. This site is a basic summary of the rise of Mussolini.
  • www.newgenevacenter.org/ movers/20th-1st2.htm- accessed 5/31/03- This site had the picture of Victor Emmanuel III.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/modern/versaill/versahtm.htm- accessed 5/30/03- This site had information and picture on the Treaty of Versailles.
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Work Cited

  • 5. www.charm.net/~vacirca/ comingsoon.html- accessed 5/30/03- This site had the information and picture about Fascism.
  • 6. www.encarta.msn.com -accessed 5/31/03- This contained all the information pertaining to Italy and WWII. This website has a lot of Information on many topics relating to WWII.
  • 7. Pics-accessed 3/31/03
    • www.rook.innercite.com/~lowe/ mussolini/muss1.jpg
    • www-hoover.stanford.edu/.../research/us7730_w_b.jpg
  • http://www.worldwar2history.info/Italy/
  • www.multied.com/bio/people/ Mussolini.html
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