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Real Transformer. 1- There are flux leakages 2- Some power loss (copper, core losses) 3- Limited permeability . Let’s see what effects these realities would have on voltage and current relation of the primary and the secondary. Q:Can we modify the ideal transformer model to take these

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Real transformer
Real Transformer

1- There are flux leakages

2- Some power loss

(copper, core losses)

3- Limited permeability

Let’s see what effects these realities would have on voltage and

current relation of the primary and the secondary

Q:Can we modify the ideal transformer model to take these

realities into account?

A: Yes



With no flux leakage

Now with flux leakage


Q: Is there a way to model the flux leakage:

A: Yes, we can count for flux leakage using this

equivalent circuit


Manipulations of formulas

The same for secondary



2-2- Core (eddy and hysteresis) loss

3- Limited permeability

In ideal transformer:

That means in ideal transformer, if the current in the secondary

is zero (no load), the current in the primary should be zero as well


In real transformer:

That means in real transformer, if the current in the secondary

is zero (no load), the current in the primary is not zero

Magnetization current


Ideal Transformer Model

Real Transformer Model

Using phasor


Other Equivalent Circuits

The original equivalent circuit

Referred to the primary


The original equivalent circuit

Referred to the secondary


Some Simplifications

If we assume that the current in Rc and XM would not change much if we change its place,


If we ignore the core losses and magnetization current

These models are too simplified, the original model is too complicated, we usually work with these models

Referred to the primary

Referred to the secondary


Determining the parameters
Determining the Parameters

Open-circuit test

Short-circuit test


Q: Given six values, how can we determine the parameters of the equivalent circuit

From open-circuit test,


Short circuit test the equivalent circuit



In summary
In Summary secondary components

Given:

If the test is done on the primary

For the equivalent circuit referred to the primary


Two obtainable equivalent circuit
Two Obtainable Equivalent Circuit secondary components

To obtain the equivalent circuit referred to secondary,

Divide the parameters by the turn ratio square


Example
Example secondary components


Equivalent circuit secondary components

Referred to the primary

Given:

8000/240

Equivalent circuit

Referred to the secondary


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