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Plagues, Pestilence and Human Populations






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Plagues, Pestilence and Human Populations

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1. Plagues, Pestilence and Human Populations The History and Impact of Infectious Disease

2. Disease as a biocultural entity? Impact of history on infectious disease Disease biology Cultural adaptations

3. Impact of disease? Huge topic! Introduces speculation? Ways of examining: Population Military outcomes Settlement Social Political Psychological

4. Lost and forgotten? Public health efforts Increased sanitation

5. Disappearance of many infectious, filth diseases

6. Plagues and population 430 BC Plague of Athens killed one third of population, ended Golden Age of Athens 166 AD Antonine Plague killed 4-7 million people, upheaval part of collapse of Rome C. 160 AD plague led to collapse of Han dynasty 430 AD Plague of Justinian- Byzantine emperor Justinian struck, unable to recover empire 700-800s AD Smallpox outbreaks in Japan lead to spread of Buddhism

7. Epidemics and History- examples The Black Death and the Reformation? Conquest of the Americas: horse and gun or microbes? Politics and disease: Phila., 1790s, Memphis 1878

8. The ?Black Death?, 1347, 1361?

9. The Black Death and the Reformation Short term Impact: Social chaos Empty land No crops Labor demand Loss of faith in authority

10. Long term impacts- population Plague revisited Europe until 18th century Population recovery slow

12. Social Impact ?Jacquerie? ex. rebellion against social and ecclesiastical authority Renaissance Protestant Reformation ?Dance of Death?- imaginative and artistic focus on death?

13. Triumph of Death

14. The Conquest of the Americas Horse and gun or microbes? Pre-Columbian population of the Americas- est. 75- 145 million Pre-Columbian population of Europe- est. ~60- 100 million (world pop. est. 500m)

15. Tenochtitlan

16. Population change in Mexico 25,000,000 at time of Columbus Tenochtitlan- world?s largest city? Population 200,000 London in 1500. Population 50,000 1532 16,800,000 1548 6,300,000 1568 2,650,000 1580 1,900,000 1595 1,375,000 1605 1,000,000

17. Cortes, Mexico and Smallpox Hernan Cortes Tenochtitlan 1518 Defeat, retreat Smallpox 1521- return Victory

18. Pizarro, Peru, and Smallpox November 16, 1532 Spanish conquer huge force of Incans led by Atahuallpa- superior technology? But- 1528- smallpox Death of Wayna Capac Civil War

19. Virgin or Widowed Land? Massachusetts 1616-18- outbreak- plague, smallpox? Patuxet decimated area emptied 1620- Pilgrims

20. Disease and belief Iroquois curing ceremonies- smallpox mask Kiowa

21. George Catlin, 1830s Painted Native American peoples

22. Social Impact June of 1837, St. Peter brought smallpox at Fort Clark, 60 miles north of present day Bismarck, North Dakota. 31 Mandan survived out of 1600? Catlin described social response

23. Yellow Fever and the New Republic Philadelphia 1793 10% of remaining population perished Politics: alignment of political ideas, definition of parties Disease origins: Jefferson and Democrats= local Hamilton and Federalists= imported Conflict- imported led to local support Influential Democratic Republicans died Pro and anti-FrenchConflict- imported led to local support Influential Democratic Republicans died Pro and anti-French

24. Cure also a party issue Democrats- dangerous cure Rush?s bleeding and purging vs Federalist bark and wine Local origins- blame Americans? Lost faith in political leaders

25. Yellow fever and public health- 19th century Disease became endemic in Caribbean Brought to New Orleans Mississippi spread 1878 Memphis public health- sewage system

26. Why Were These Diseases So Significant? Epidemic New ?Na?ve? population Virgin Soil Epidemic

27. How do new diseases arise? Old diseases Disease pools Africa Southeast Asia/China Indian subcontinent Middle East and Mediterranean Northern Europe Americas

28. How do new diseases arise? Old diseases- mix disease pools Movement: Exploration Trade War Migration Mass transportation

29. How do new diseases arise? Agriculture Soil/water Domestic animals poultry 26 rats & mice 32 horse 35 pig 42 sheep & goats 46 cattle 50 dog 65

30. How do new diseases arise? Change habits, environment: Growth of cities Ultra absorbent tampons Hospitals Forest clearance Transportation Technology

31. Examples: Emerging Disease Ebola Lassa HIV-AIDS West Nile virus Toxic shock syndrome Legionaire?s disease Lyme?s disease Hanta virus Dengue fever

32. How do new diseases arise? Spontaneous Mutations viral, bacterial Gene sharing Plasmid sharing Bacteria host virus

33. Examples Antibiotic-resistant TB Antibiotic-resistant Gonorrhea Shigella, E. coli Cholera

34. Epidemic versus endemic? Epidemic Spanish influenza? 1919 Influenza strains: pig-duck agriculture Endemic Childhood diseases Genetic adaptations- Sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs, Cystic fibrosis

35. Coming Plague? Rapid transportation, growth of cities, poverty, public health, deforestation, technology Claims justified? How can society prepare for new disease?


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