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1. Plagues, Pestilence and Human Populations The History and Impact of Infectious Disease
2. Disease as a biocultural entity? Impact of history on infectious disease
3. Impact of disease? Huge topic!
Ways of examining:
4. Lost and forgotten? Public health efforts
5. Disappearance of many infectious, filth diseases
6. Plagues and population 430 BC Plague of Athens killed one third of population, ended Golden Age of Athens
166 AD Antonine Plague killed 4-7 million people, upheaval part of collapse of Rome
C. 160 AD plague led to collapse of Han dynasty
430 AD Plague of Justinian- Byzantine emperor Justinian struck, unable to recover empire
700-800s AD Smallpox outbreaks in Japan lead to spread of Buddhism
7. Epidemics and History- examples The Black Death and the Reformation?
Conquest of the Americas: horse and gun or microbes?
Politics and disease: Phila., 1790s,
8. The “Black Death”, 1347, 1361…
9. The Black Death and the Reformation Short term Impact:
Loss of faith in authority
10. Long term impacts- population Plague revisited Europe until 18th century
Population recovery slow
12. Social Impact “Jacquerie” ex. rebellion against social and ecclesiastical authority
“Dance of Death”- imaginative and artistic focus on death?
13. Triumph of Death
14. The Conquest of the Americas Horse and gun or microbes?
Pre-Columbian population of the Americas- est. 75- 145 million
Pre-Columbian population of Europe- est. ~60- 100 million (world pop. est. 500m)
16. Population change in Mexico 25,000,000 at time of Columbus
Tenochtitlan- world’s largest city? Population 200,000
London in 1500. Population 50,000 1532 16,800,000
17. Cortes, Mexico and Smallpox Hernan Cortes
18. Pizarro, Peru, and Smallpox November 16, 1532
Spanish conquer huge force of Incans led by Atahuallpa- superior technology?
Death of Wayna Capac
19. Virgin or Widowed Land? Massachusetts
1616-18- outbreak- plague, smallpox?
20. Disease and belief Iroquois curing ceremonies- smallpox mask
21. George Catlin, 1830s Painted Native American peoples
22. Social Impact June of 1837, St. Peter brought smallpox at Fort Clark, 60 miles north of present day Bismarck, North Dakota.
31 Mandan survived out of 1600
Catlin described social response
23. Yellow Fever and the New Republic Philadelphia 1793
10% of remaining population perished
Politics: alignment of political ideas, definition of parties
Jefferson and Democrats= local
Hamilton and Federalists= imported
Conflict- imported led to local support
Influential Democratic Republicans died
Pro and anti-FrenchConflict- imported led to local support
Influential Democratic Republicans died
Pro and anti-French
24. Cure also a party issue Democrats- dangerous cure
Rush’s bleeding and purging vs Federalist bark and wine
Local origins- blame Americans?
Lost faith in political leaders
25. Yellow fever and public health- 19th century Disease became endemic in Caribbean
Brought to New Orleans
1878 Memphis public health- sewage system
26. Why Were These Diseases So Significant? Epidemic
Virgin Soil Epidemic
27. How do new diseases arise? Old diseases Disease pools
Middle East and
28. How do new diseases arise? Old diseases- mix disease pools Movement:
29. How do new diseases arise? Agriculture
rats & mice 32
sheep & goats 46
30. How do new diseases arise? Change habits, environment:
Growth of cities
Ultra absorbent tampons
31. Examples: Emerging Disease Ebola
West Nile virus
Toxic shock syndrome
32. How do new diseases arise? Spontaneous Mutations
Bacteria host virus
Shigella, E. coli
34. Epidemic versus endemic? Epidemic
Spanish influenza? 1919 Influenza strains: pig-duck agriculture
Genetic adaptations- Sickle cell anemia, Tay-Sachs, Cystic fibrosis
35. Coming Plague? Rapid transportation, growth of cities, poverty, public health, deforestation, technology
How can society prepare for new disease?