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Overview of Lecture. Prejudice. Negative Contact. Discrimination. Stereotypes. What are stereotypes. Associating members of certain groups with certain characteristics E.g., Perceived to be alike; have similar (negative) traits. Stereotypes. Causes of. How to reduce them.

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Overview of Lecture

Prejudice

Negative Contact

Discrimination

Stereotypes


What are stereotypes

  • Associating members of certain groups with certain characteristics

    • E.g., Perceived to be alike; have similar (negative) traits


Stereotypes

Causes of

How to reduce them


Why Stereotypes Form

Negative historical relations between groups

Inequalities in societal roles

Socialization experiences

Media portrayals

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Form

Negative historical relations between groups

  • e.g., slavery, indentured labor

    Inequalities in societal roles

  • e.g., more women in low-paying jobs, earning less

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Form

  • Socialization experiences

    • e.g., parents, teachers, peers

  • Media portrayals

    • E.g., African Canadians as “gangsta rappers”, Caribbean Canadians as “ganja” smokers

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Form

Negative historical relations between groups

Inequalities in societal roles

Socialization experiences

Media portrayals

Stereotypes

Causes similar to explaining negative contact


Why Stereotypes Persist

  • Activated automatically

  • Reinforced via social norms

  • Information that confirms beliefs is easily recalled

  • Trait-based explanations for behavior

  • Sub-grouping exceptions

  • Create expectations for interaction

  • Enable in-group members to feel “different” from out-group members


Why Stereotypes Persist

  • Activated automatically

    • E.g., from observable characteristics

  • Reinforced via social norms

    • E.g., it is ok to derogate gays nowadays

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Persist

  • Information that confirms beliefs is easily recalled

    • E.g., times you saw women driving badly vs. times you saw women driving well

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Persist

  • Provide trait-based reasons to explain why people behave the way they do

    • E.g., Women get into more accidents because they are bad drivers

  • Sub-grouping exceptions of out-group

    • E.g., successful Black

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Persist

  • Create expectations for interaction

    • E.g., Blacks are violent, so this Black man is going to be hostile so I better be prepared

Stereotypes


Why Stereotypes Persist

  • Enable in-group members to feel “different” from out-group members

    • E.g., Women are bad drivers, Men are good drivers, so they are different

Stereotypes


Stereotypes

Causes of

How to reduce them


How to reduce Stereotypes

1. Stereotypes activated automatically?

  • Counter automatic activation of stereotypes with guilt (self regulation)

  • Replace/modify negative associations with positive experiences & information

Reduce Stereotypes


How to reduce Stereotypes

2. Reinforced via social norms?

  • Change old social norms with new ones

  • Change motivation to comply w/norms

Reduce Stereotypes


Counter recall tendencies with other needs

  • Make in-group dependent on out-group

    • e.g., learning to distinguish Chinese editors from each other bec. of supervisory relationship

  • Create need in in-group members for out-group members to like them

    • e.g., business case for selling products/services to women

Reduce Stereotypes


Change explanations

  • Increase focus on situation

    • E.g., Why are more Blacks in the criminal system?

  • Different out-group members display non-stereotypical traits in different settings

  • Teach statistics

    • Representativeness of sample outgroup member

  • Reduce Stereotypes


    Change explanations

    • Reduce tendency to blame negative outcomes to out-group members by thinking about out-group in complex ways

      • E.g., teach about collectivism, power-distance

    Reduce Stereotypes


    • Increase knowledge of many individual out-groupmembers to prevent sub-group creation

      • Differentiate out-group members from each other

        • E.g., cultural circles exercise enabled differentiation by providing contact with different members of the same ethnic group

    Reduce Stereotypes


    Counteract expectations

    • Out-group members behave in non-stereotypical ways that disconfirm stereotypes

      • e.g., Women’s driving records

    • Out-group members confident they do not have the expected trait

      • e.g., Women is confident of her driving skills

    • Have expectations for interaction?

    Reduce Stereotypes


    Change ability of stereotypes to maintain differences

    • Create Super-ordinate Groups

      • Tendency to view out-group members as alike and negative is no longer functional

    • Emphasize Multiple Identities

      • Emphasize those categories which unite groups

    Reduce Stereotypes


    Notice inter-relationships out-group?

    Prejudice

    Negative Contact

    Discrimination

    Stereotypes


    Prejudice out-group?

    Negative

    Feelings

    Negative

    Thoughts

    Negative Associations

    Stereotypes

    Positive Associations


    Prejudice

    Negative

    Feelings

    Negative

    Thoughts

    Negative

    Associations

    Positive

    Associations

    Stereotypes


    Processes underlying Valuing Diversity out-group?

    Training

    • Self-insights into own biases increased motivation to regulate discriminatory behavior

    • Provide experience or information that contradicts stereotypes


    Processes underlying Valuing Diversity out-group?

    Training

    • Change knowledge of and understanding about different groups

    • Provide historical information about groups

    • Info on group differences in values, behaviors, norms, beliefs


    Processes underlying Valuing Diversity out-group?

    Difficulties with Training

    • Adult attitudes hard to modify bec

      • Lifelong exposure and experience with mass media’s stereotypes

      • May react with defensiveness and avoidance to info that creates change

      • May feel they are being attacked or blamed during training


    Causes of out-group?

    How to reduce them

    Counter activation or replace w/positive associations

    Change social norms

    Counter recall tendencies with interdependence

    Change explanations with a more complex understanding

    Increase knowledge of more & varied members

    Members act in counter stereotypical ways

    Change ability for stereotypes to enable feeling of difference

    Activated automatically

    Reinforced via social norms

    Information that confirms beliefs is easily recalled

    Trait-based explanations for behavior

    Sub-grouping exceptions

    Provide expectations for interaction

    Enable in-group members to feel “different” from out-group members


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