Molecular Genetics
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Molecular Genetics. Protein. DNA. Phenotype. RNA. Genome Gene. The flow of information:. 1. Storage. 2. Replication. 3. Gene Expression. Transcription. Translation. Flow of Genetic Information. Flow of Genetic Information. Translation. Cap. Start of genetic message.

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Molecular Genetics

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Molecular Genetics

Protein

DNA

Phenotype

RNA

Genome Gene

The flow of information:

1. Storage

2. Replication

3. Gene Expression

Transcription

Translation


Flow of Genetic Information


Flow of Genetic Information


Translation

Cap

Start of genetic

message

  • Translation requires:

    • Messenger RNA (mRNA)

    • Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    • Ribosomes

    • ATP

    • Enzymes (translation factors)

End

Tail


Translation

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA):

    • Molecular interpreter

    • Matches amino acids with codons in mRNA using anticodons

Amino acid

attachment site

Anticodon


Translation

tRNA Structure


Translation

  • Ribosomes:

    • Coordinate the functions of mRNA and tRNA

    • Made of two subunits

    • Contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

tRNA binding sites

P site

A site

Large

subunit

Small

subunit


Translation

Initiator

tRNA

  • Complex formation:

    • Ribosome

    • mRNA

    • Initiator tRNA

    • Translation factors

mRNA

Start

codon


Translation

  • Codon Recognition:

    • Another tRNA

    • Translation factors

Initiator

tRNA

mRNA

Anticodon

Start

codon


Translation

  • Peptide Bond Formation:


Translation

  • Translocation:

New

peptide

bond

mRNA

movement


Translation

  • Elongation:


Codon recognition

ELONGATION

Stop

codon

Peptide bond formation

Translocation


Transcription

Polypeptide

Nucleus

DNA

mRNA

RNA processing

Termination

mRNA

Enzyme

Elongation

ATP

Initiation

of translation

Amino acid

attachment


tRNA Charging


Mutations

  • A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.

  • Mutations can change the amino acids in a protein.

  • Mutations can involve:

    • Large regions of a chromosome

    • Just a single nucleotide pair

Normal hemoglobin DNA

Mutant hemoglobin DNA

mRNA

mRNA

Sickle-cell hemoglobin

Normal hemoglobin


Mutations


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