Molecular Genetics
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Molecular Genetics. Protein. DNA. Phenotype. RNA. Genome Gene. The flow of information:. 1. Storage. 2. Replication. 3. Gene Expression. Transcription. Translation. Flow of Genetic Information. Flow of Genetic Information. Translation. Cap. Start of genetic message.

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Molecular Genetics

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Molecular genetics

Molecular Genetics

Protein

DNA

Phenotype

RNA

Genome Gene

The flow of information:

1. Storage

2. Replication

3. Gene Expression

Transcription

Translation




Molecular genetics

Translation

Cap

Start of genetic

message

  • Translation requires:

    • Messenger RNA (mRNA)

    • Transfer RNA (tRNA)

    • Ribosomes

    • ATP

    • Enzymes (translation factors)

End

Tail


Molecular genetics

Translation

  • Transfer RNA (tRNA):

    • Molecular interpreter

    • Matches amino acids with codons in mRNA using anticodons

Amino acid

attachment site

Anticodon


Molecular genetics

Translation

tRNA Structure


Molecular genetics

Translation

  • Ribosomes:

    • Coordinate the functions of mRNA and tRNA

    • Made of two subunits

    • Contain ribosomal RNA (rRNA)

tRNA binding sites

P site

A site

Large

subunit

Small

subunit


Molecular genetics

Translation

Initiator

tRNA

  • Complex formation:

    • Ribosome

    • mRNA

    • Initiator tRNA

    • Translation factors

mRNA

Start

codon


Molecular genetics

Translation

  • Codon Recognition:

    • Another tRNA

    • Translation factors

Initiator

tRNA

mRNA

Anticodon

Start

codon


Molecular genetics

Translation

  • Peptide Bond Formation:


Molecular genetics

Translation

  • Translocation:

New

peptide

bond

mRNA

movement


Molecular genetics

Translation

  • Elongation:


Molecular genetics

Codon recognition

ELONGATION

Stop

codon

Peptide bond formation

Translocation


Molecular genetics

Transcription

Polypeptide

Nucleus

DNA

mRNA

RNA processing

Termination

mRNA

Enzyme

Elongation

ATP

Initiation

of translation

Amino acid

attachment


Molecular genetics

tRNA Charging


Molecular genetics

Mutations

  • A mutation is any change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.

  • Mutations can change the amino acids in a protein.

  • Mutations can involve:

    • Large regions of a chromosome

    • Just a single nucleotide pair

Normal hemoglobin DNA

Mutant hemoglobin DNA

mRNA

mRNA

Sickle-cell hemoglobin

Normal hemoglobin



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