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Middle East Borders: Now and Then. By: Sari Lindner Period 6. The History of the Middle East. Ottoman Empire ruled since 1299. They ruled from modern day Istanbul in Turkey. In WW1, Britain promised Arab’s independence. Britain also promised a Jewish State .

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Middle East Borders: Now and Then

By: Sari Lindner

Period 6


The History of the Middle East

  • Ottoman Empire ruled since 1299
  • They ruled from modern day Istanbul in Turkey
  • In WW1, Britain promised Arab’s independence.
  • Britain also promised a Jewish State
  • Britain made an agreement to share the Ottoman Empire with France

Ancient Ottoman Empire map


History of Iraq

  • Shiite and Sunni sects of Islam split- Shiite to Iran and Iraq, but the leaders of Iraq are Sunni
  • Split because there were disagreements on who would succeed Muhammad.
  • In 1921, Britain installed a leader, who was a British ally in the WW1

History of Iraq

  • Monarchy controlled in 1958
  • Baath party gained control in 1968
  • SadamHussayn became president in 1979

Iraq, Kuwait, and the USA

  • Hussayn invaded Kuwait in 1990
  • Hussayn wanted more of Kuwait as Iraqi owned
  • In March of 2003, USA took over almost entire county
  • In December of 2003, USA arrested the Baath party and Hussayn.
  • US troops kept things normal in North Iraq, but now it’s shaky again there because most of the troops are gone.

Israel and Egypt

  • 4 neighboring countries surrounding Israel- Egypt, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan
  • Israel captured Sinai Peninsula twice
  • Both times though, they gave it back to Egypt
  • Egypt is now stationed in Israel, to watch Suez Canal in case it gets cut off
  • But Israeli government is watching Egypt in case of another uprising

Saudi Arabia and Yemen

  • There was a common border made in 1934 by the Taif Treaty
  • In 1995, the Taif Treaty was renewed
  • There are disputes over 3 islands in the Red Sea
  • Since there’s no historic boundaries, it makes new borders harder to create
  • In June of 2000, there was another border agreement based on the Taif Treaty

Where some of the disputes are between Yemen and Saudi Arabia



Saudi Arabia and Yemen

Some poor Yemeni houses

  • This land is thought to contain oil which makes it more controversial
  • Yemen’s claimed Saudi Arabia’s military tried to sabotage the Yemen people
  • Saudi Arabia thinks lots of people will be looking for from Yemen because of instability there
  • Yemen’s very poor, and Saudi Arabia views it as a threat
  • Political instability contributes to lack of defined borders

Israel and Palestine

  • UN gave Israel piece of land as part of Balfour Declaration
  • Arabs didn’t want New Jewish state in their land
  • Arabs and Israelis have been disputing over the West Bank since 6-day War in 1967
  • Israel separated from Gaza Strip in 2005 which set lots of tension in Israel for a long time

6-Day War and Jordan

  • The 6-Day war was in 1967 between Israel and the Palestinians
  • Israel took control of Golan Heights, East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza, and the Sinai Peninsula
  • Israel signed a border treaty with Jordan in 1994, and since then there’s been very little tension since
  • The Jordan River’s a natural border between the 2 countries

Impacts on the World

  • Every president in our lifetime’s tried to make peace in the Middle East
  • None have succeeded
  • Every county besides Egypt and Israel is trying to get rights to oil preserves
  • Closing the Strait of Hormuz means closing major oil shipping
  • Strait of Hormuz and the Suez Canal leads to major open waterways
  • Suez Canal also major oil shipping to oceans

Strait of Hormuz

Suez Canal


Shebaa Farms

  • Shebaa Farms known where Abraham received Old Testament
  • Controversy started in 2000
  • Started when Israel separated from South Lebanon
  • Hezbollah is the Shiite commander of South Lebanon
  • Hezbollah says Israel was still occupying Shebaa Farms when they left
  • But Israel says it’s Syrian territory and Hezbollah has no claim on it

Lebanon and Syria


  • Officials say Syria gave Shebaa Farms to Lebanon in 1951
  • No offical border line between Lebanon and Syria
  • Syria never considered Lebanon independent country
  • This is a major controversy between Hezbullah and Israel, and also the country Lebanon and Israel

Religion in Middle East

  • Hinduism started in 3000 BCE in India
  • Abraham was born in 2000 BCE in Israel where Judaism started
  • Buddha was born in 480 BCE in Iran
  • Christianity spread in 32 AD
  • Islam started in 570 AD in the Middle East

Religion Around the World

  • Christianity- Europe, North and South America
  • Hinduism- India
  • Islam- North Africa, Middle East
  • Judaism- Israel
  • Buddhism- East Asia


  • Hill, Dell. "Middle East Borders, Oil, and Religious Freedom in Play |" | The Right Idea. N.p., 31 Jan. 2011. Web. 3 Mar. 2011. <>.
  • "Israel Border Conflict | Stand for Israel | The Truth Behind the Headlines." Stand for Israel Blog. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Feb. 2011. <>.
  • Mayzel, Matitiahu. " How Did Israel Get Its Current Borders?." Middle East Facts - Israel and "Palestine". N.p., 13 Apr. 2002. Web. 1 Mar. 2011. <>.
  • Mitnick, Joshua. " Behind the dispute over Shebaa Farms / The Christian Science Monitor - ." The Christian Science Monitor - . N.p., 22 Aug. 2006. Web. 2 Mar. 2011. <>.


  • Murphy, Chris. "Saudi Arabia - Yemen Border Dispute." Page has moved. ICE Case Studies, n.d. Web. 23 Feb. 2011. <>.
  • Peters, Ralph. "Blood Borders." Center for Democracy in Lebanon. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Mar. 2002. <>.
  • Tristam, Pierre. "What Is Shebaa Farms? - Lebanon Syria Israel and the Dispute Over Shebaa Farms ." Middle East News and Issues from N.p., n.d. Web. 3 Mar. 2011. <>.