THE AGE OF JEFFERSON 1789-1824. THE PRESIDENCY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. THE PRESIDENCY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. GW was elected unanimously by Congress. He provided a much-needed symbol of national unity. Having retired to private life after the war, he was a model of republican virtue.
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GW was elected unanimously by Congress. He provided a much-needed symbol of national unity.
Having retired to private life after the war, he was a model of republican virtue.
His vice-president, John Adams, was widely respected as one of the main leaders in the drive for independence.
GW brought into his cabinet some of the nation’s most prominent leaders.
TJ was his his Secretary of State.
AH was Secretary of the Treasury.
Gen. Henry Knox was Secretary of War.
GW also appointed a Supreme Court of six members, including John Jay.
But harmonious govt., proved short-lived.
Political divisions first surfaced over the financial plan developed by AH in 1790 and 1791.
To establish the nation’s financial stability.
Bring to the government’s support the country’s most powerful financial interests.
Encourage economic development.
Long-term goal was to make the US a major commercial and military power.
Model: Great Britain
The goal of national greatness, AH believed, could never be realized if the government suffered from the same weaknesses as under the Articles of Confederation.
Part One: Establish the new nation’s creditworthiness – that is to create conditions under which persons would loan money to the govt., by purchasing its bonds, confident that they would be repaid.
Part Two: Creation of a new national debt: the old debts would be replaced by the new interest-bearing bonds to the govt., creditors. This would give men of economic substance a stake in promoting the new nation’s stability.
Part Three: Called for the creation of a Bank of the United States: The goal of the BUS was to serve as the nation’s main financial agent. It would hold public funds, issue bank notes that would serve as currency, and make loans to the govt., when necessary, all the while returning a tidy profit.
Part Four: To raise revenue, AH proposed a tax on the producers of whiskey.
Part Five: AH called for the imposition of a tariff and govt., subsidies to encourage the development of factories that could mfg., products currently purchased from aboard.
AH also promoted an unsuccessful effort to build an industrial city at present day Paterson, NJ.
He also proposed the creation of an national army to deal with uprisings like Shays’s Rebellion.
AH’s plan won strong support from American financiers, manufacturers, and merchants.
But it alarmed those who believed the new nation’s destiny lay in charting a different path of development.
AH’s plan hinged on close ties with GB, America’s main trading partner.
To TJ and Madison, the future lay in westward expansion, not connections with Europe.
They had little desire to promote mfg., or urban growth or to see economic policy shaped in the interests of bankers and business leaders.
Their goal was a republic of independent farmers marketing grain, tobacco, and other products freely to the entire world.
Free trade would promote American prosperity while fostering greater social equality.
TJ and Madison quickly concluded that the greatest threat to American freedom lay in the alliance of a powerful central govt., with an emerging class of commercial capitalists, such as AH appeared to envision.
TJ: Hamilton’s system “flowed from principles adverse to liberty, and was calculated to undermine and demolish the republic.”
AH’s plans for a standing army was criticized as a threat to freedom.
Critics feared that the national bank and assumption of state debts would introduce into American politics the same corruption that had undermined British liberty.
AH’s whiskey tax seemed to single out whiskey producers.
At first opposition arose entirely from the South.
VA., had pretty much paid off its war debt; it did not see why it should be taxed to benefit states like MA., who had failed to do so.
AH insisted that all his plans were authorized by the Constitution’s ambiguous clause empowering Congress to enact laws for the “general welfare”.
This clause is known as the Necessary and Proper Clause.
AH took a broad constructionistview of the Const.
Opponents of the plan took a strict constructionist view – the federal govt., could only exercise powers specifically listed in the Const.
TJ believed the new national bank unconstitutional since the right of Congress to create a bank was not mentioned in the Const.
Opposition in Congress threatened the enactment of AH’s plan.
Behind-the-scenes negotiations followed.
A compromise was reached during a dinner between AH and TJ.
Southerners would agree to the fiscal program in exchange for the establishment of the permanent national capitol on the Potomac River between MD., and VA.
Pierre-Charles L’Enfant designed a grandiose plan for the “federal city” modeled on the great urban centers of Europe.
Benjamin Banneker, the first African American scientist, performed the job of surveying the area.
When it came to constructing the public buildings in the nation’s new capital, most of the labor was done by slaves.
The debate over AH’s financial plan was the first step in the development of political parties.
Political divisions began over AH’s fiscal plan, but they deepened in response to events in Europe.
1789: The French Revolution began. It was welcomed by nearly all Americans.
1793: It took a more radical turn with the execution of King Louis XVI along with numerous aristocrats and other foes of the new govt., and war broke out between France and GB.
Events in France became a source of bitter conflict in America.
The French Revolution was the second step in the development of political parties.
TJ and his followers believed that despite its excesses the Fr. Rev., marked an historic victory for the idea of popular self-govt., which must be defended at all costs.
To GW, AH, and their supporters, the FR. Rev., raised the specter of anarchy. Americans, they believed, had no choice but to draw close to GB.
The “permanent” alliance between France and the US, which dated back to 1778, complicated the situation.
No one advocated that the US should become involved in the European war.
4/1793: GW issued a Proclamation of Neutrality – the US would remain neutral in the French and English war.
But that spring, French Rev., admirers organized a tumultuous welcome for Edmond Genet, a French envoy seeking to arouse support for his beleaguered govt.
When he began commissioning American ships to attack British vessels under the Fr., flag, the Washington admin., asked for his recall.
Meanwhile, the British seized hundreds of American ships trading with the French West Indies.
GB also resumed the hated practice of impressment – kidnapping sailors, including American citizens of British origin, to serve in their navy.
GW sent John Jay to London to negotiate a treaty and end the practice of impressment.
Jay’s Treaty produced the greatest public controversy of GW’s presidency.
Jay’s Treaty contained no British concession on impressment or the rights of American shipping.
GB did agree to abandon outposts on the American western frontier, which it was supposed to have done in 1783.
In return, the US guaranteed favored treatment to British imported goods.
In effect, the treaty canceled the American-French alliance and recognized British economic and naval supremacy as unavoidable facts of life.
Critics of GW, charged that it aligned the US with monarchial GB in its conflict with France.
By the mid-1790s, two increasingly coherent parties had appeared in Congress.
They called themselves Federalists and Democratic-Republicans.
Both parties laid claim to the language of liberty, and each accused its opponent of engaging in a conspiracy to destroy liberty.
Supporters of GW
Favored Hamilton’s financial plan.
Favored close ties with Great Britain.
Included prosperous merchants, farmers, lawyers, and established political leaders (especially outside the South).
Outlook generally elitist.
Led by TJ and JM.
More sympathetic to France.
Drew support from an unusual alliance of wealthy Southern planters and ordinary farmers throughout the country.
Support also came from urban artists.
Preferred the “boisterous sea of liberty.”
More accepting of broad democratic participation as essential to freedom.
The Federalist Party reflected the 18th century view of society as a fixed hierarchy and of public office reserved for men of economic substance.
Freedom, to them, rested on deference to authority. It did not mean the right to stand up in opposition to the government.
Federalists feared that the “spirit of liberty” unleashed by the Rev., was degenerating into anarchy and lacking moral discipline.
The Federalists may have been the only party in American history to proclaim democracy and freedom dangerous in the hands of ordinary citizens.
Each party considered itself the representative of the nation and the other an illegitimate faction.
The political debate became more and more heated.
The Federalists called the DR’s French agents, anarchists, and traitors.
DR’s called the Feds., monarchist intent on transforming the new govt., into a corrupt, British-style aristocracy.
Each charged the other with betraying the principles of the Rev., and American freedom.
GW, himself, received mounting abuse over Jay’s Treaty.
When he left office, a DR newspaper declared that his name had become synonymous with “political iniquity( wickedness and sinfulness) and “legalized corruption.”
1794: Backcountry PA., farmers sought to block collection of the new tax on whiskey.
Their actions reinforced Federalists convictions over mob actions.
The rebels invoked the symbols and language of 1776.
GW dispatched 13,000 militiamen to quash the rebellion.
GW accompanied the militiamen to the scene of the rebellion.
The rebels offered no resistance.
GW wrote: His vigorous response was motivated in part for “the impression” the restoration of public order “will make on others” – the others being Europeans who did not believe the American experiment in self-govt., could survive.
1792: GW won unanimous re-election.
1796: He retired from public life, in part to establish the precedent that the presidency is not a life office.
In his Farewell Address, mostly written by AH and published in newspapers rather than delivered orally, GW defended his admin., against criticism, warned against the party spirit, and advised the country to steer clear of international politics by avoiding “permanent alliances with any portion of the world.”
GW’s departure unleashed fierce party competition over the choice of his successor.
In the first contested presidential election, two tickets presented themselves.
John Adams and Thomas Pinckney (SC) representing the Federalists.
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr (NY) representing the Democratic-Republicans.
In a majority of the 16 states (VT, KY and TN had been added to the original 13) the legislature still chose presidential electors.
But in 6 states where the people voted for electors directly, intense campaigning took place.
JA = 71 electoral votes
TP = 59 e.v. – due to a split among Fed.
TJ = 68 e.v.
Thus JA became President and TJ became VP.
Voting fell almost entirely on sectional lines:
JA carried New England, NY., and NJ.
TJ swept the south, along with PA.
1797: JA assumed leadership of a divided country.
Brilliant but austere (stern), and self-important, he was disliked even by those who honored his long career of service to the cause of independence.
AH, the leader of the Federalist Party, disliked him.
JA’s presidency was beset by foreign and domestic crises.
The country was dragged into the ongoing European war.
As a neutral nation, the US claimed the right to trade nonmilitary goods with both GB and FR, but both countries seized American ships without impunity.
1797: American diplomats were sent to Paris to negotiate a treaty to replace the old alliance of 1778.
French officials presented the American diplomats with a demand for bribes ($250,000) before negotiations could proceed.
When Adams made public the envoys dispatches, the French officials were designated XYZ.
The “XYZ Affair” poisoned America’s relations with its former ally.
1798: The US and FR were engaged in a “quasi-war” at sea, with FR ships seizing American vessels in the Caribbean and a newly enlarged American navy harassing the French.
In effect, the US had become an ally of GB.
Despite pressure from AH, who wanted a war against FR, JA in 1800 negotiated peace with FR.
JA was less cautious in domestic affairs.
Unrest continued in many rural areas.
1799: Farmers in SE PA., obstructed the assessment of a property tax that Congress had imposed to held fund an expanded army and navy.
A crowd, led by John Fries, a local militia leader, released arrested men from prison.
No shots were fired, but JA dispatched units of the federal army to the area.
The army arrested Fries for treason and terrorized his supporters and whipped Republican newspaper editors.
JA pardoned Fries in 1800 but the area never voted for the Federalist party again.
The greatest crisis of the Adams Administration arose over the Alien and Sedition Acts of 1798.
Confronted with mounting opposition, some of it voiced by immigrant pamphleteers and editors, Federalists moved to silence their critics.
A new Naturalization Act extended from 5 to 14 years the residency requirement for immigrants seeking American citizenship.
THE ALIEN ACT:
Allowed the deportation of persons from abroad deemed “dangerous” by federal authorities.
Allowed the detention of any enemy aliens in the time of war.
THE SEDITION ACT:
Authorized the prosecution of virtually any public assembly or publication critical of the government.
This meant that opposition editors could be prosecuted for almost any political comment they printed.
Main target was the Republican Press.
18 individuals, including several Republican newspaper editors, were charged under the Sedition act.
10 were convicted for spreading “false, scandalous, and malicious information about the government.”
But the Acts failed to silence the Republican press.
Some newspapers ceased publication, but new ones, with names like Sun of Liberty and Tree of Liberty, entered the field.
The Sedition Act thrust freedom of expression to the center of discussions of American liberty.
Republicans did fight back.
TJ and Madison mobilized opposition.
They drafted resolutions adopted by the KY., and VA., legislatures.
Attacked the Sedition Act as an unconstitutional violation of the First Amendment.
Madison called on the federal government to protect free speech.
Jefferson’s original version of the Kentucky Resolution asserted that states could nullify laws of Congress that violated the Constitution.
The Kentucky legislature deleted this passage.
The resolutions were directed against assaults on freedom of expression by the federal government, not the states.
Jefferson took care to insist that the states “fully possessed” the authority to punish “seditious” speech even if the national government did not.
Indeed, state-level prosecution of newspapers for seditious libel did not end when the Sedition Act expired in 1801.
No other state endorsed the KY and VA Resolutions.
Many Americans, including Republicans, were horrified by the idea of state action that might endanger the Union.
But the “crisis of freedom” of the late 1790s strongly reinforced the idea that “freedom of discussion” was an indispensable attribute of American liberty and of democratic government.
Harrison Gray Otis, a MA., Federalist noted that free speech had become the people’s “darling privilege.”
The broad revulsion against the Acts contributed to TJ’s election as president in 1800.
“Jefferson and Liberty” became the watchword of the Republican campaign of 1800.
By this time, Republicans had developed effective techniques for mobilizing voters such as holding mass meetings to promote their cause.
The Federalists found it difficult to match their opponents mobilization but they still dominated N.E., and enjoyed considerable support in the Middle Atlantic states.
TJ = 73 e.v.
JA = 65 e.v.
AB = 73 e.v.
Before assuming office, TJ was forced to weather an unusual constitutional crisis.
Each party had arranged to have an elector throw away one of his 2 votes for President so that its presidential candidate would come out one vote ahead of the VP candidate.
But the designated Republican failed to do so.
With no candidate having a majority, the election was thrown into the HoR where the Feds., enjoyed a slight majority.
For 35 ballots, neither man received a majority of votes.
Finally, AH intervened.
AH disliked TJ but believed him enough of a statesman to recognize that the Federalists financial system could not be dismantled.
Burr, he warned, was obsessed with power.
AH’s support for TJ tipped the balance.
To avoid a repetition of the crisis, Congress and the states adopted the XII Amendment, requiring electors to cast separate votes for president and vice-president.
The events of the 1790s demonstrated that a majority of American believed ordinary people had a right to play an active role in politics, express their opinions freely, and contest the policies of their government.
To their credit, the Federalists never considered resistance to the election results.
Lurking behind the political battles of the 1790s lay the potential divisive issue of slavery.
TJ received every one of the South’s 41 e.v.
He always referred to is victory as the “Revolution of 1800.”
He saw his victory as a vindication of American freedom, securing posterity the fruits of independence.
But TJ’s triumph would not have been possible without slavery.
Had 3/5 of the slave population not been counted in apportionment, JA would have been elected in 1800.
The issue of slavery would not disappear.
The very first Congress, under the new Constitution, received petitions calling for emancipation.
One bore the signature of Benjamin Franklin who in 1787 had agreed to serve as president of the PA., Abolition Society.
A long debate followed, in which speakers from GA., and SC., vigorously defended slavery and warned that behind Northern criticism they heard “the trumpets of civil war.”
Madison found their defense of slavery as an embarrassment.
But he concluded that the slavery question was so divisive it must be kept out of national politics.
Madison opposed Congress even receiving a petition from NC., slaves on the grounds that they were not part of the American people and had “no claim” on the lawmakers “attention.”
1793: To implement the Const., fugitive slave clause, Congress enacted a law providing for federal and state judges and local officials to facilitate the return of slaves.
Events during the 1790s underscored how powerfully slavery defined and distorted American freedom.
The same Jeffersonians who hailed the Fr. Rev., as a step in the universal progress of liberty reacted in horror against the slave revolution which began in 1791 in Saint Domingue, Haiti, the jewel of the Fr., overseas empire situated not far from the southern coast of the US.
Toussaint L’Ouverture an educated slave on a sugar plantation, forged the rebellious slaves into an army to defeat British forces seeking to seize the island and then an expedition seeking to restore French authority.
The slave uprising led to the establishment of Haiti as an independent nation in 1804.
The Haitian revolution affirmed the universality of the revolutionary era’s creed of liberty.
It inspired hopes for freedom among American slaves.
But to most whites, the rebellious slaves were a danger to American institutions.
Their resort to violence was widely taken to illustrate black’s unfitness for republican freedom.
The Adams Admin., had encouraged Haitian independence.
But TJ sought to quarantine and destroy the hemisphere second independent republic.
1800 also witnessed a real attempt by slaves in VA., to gain their freedom.
It was organized by a Richmond blacksmith, Gabriel and his brothers.
They planned to march on the city.
They would kill some white inhabitants and hold the rest, including Gov. James Monroe, hostage until their demand for the abolition of slavery was met.
On the night when the slaves were to gather, a storm washed out the roads to Richmond.
The plot was soon discovered and the leaders arrested.
26 slaves, including Gabriel, were hanged and dozens more shipped out of the state.
The VA., legislature tightened controls over the black population and severely restricted the possibility of masters voluntarily freeing their slaves.
Any slave freed after 1806 was required to leave VA., or be sold back into slavery.
The door to emancipation, thrown open by the AM. Rev., had been slammed shut.
TJ was the first president to begin his term in Washington DC.
DC still had unpaved streets, impoverished residents, and unfinished public buildings.
At one point, the roof of the Capitol collapsed narrowly missing the VP.
The capitol’s conditions seemed to symbolize TJ’s intention to reduce the importance of the national govt., in American life.
In his inaugural address, TJ was very conciliatory to his opponents.
“We are all Federalists, we are all Repubicans.”
TJ hope to dismantled as much of the Federalist system as possible.
During his 8 years in office he reduced the number of govt., employees and slashed the army and navy.
He abolished all taxes except the tariff and paid off the national debt.
He aimed to minimize federal power and eliminate govt., oversight of the economy.
His policies ensured that America would not become a centralized state on a European model, as AH had envisioned.
Nonetheless, as AH predicted, it proved impossible to uproot national authority entirely.
TJ distrusted the unelected judiciary and always believed in the primacy of local self-govt.
But during his presidency, and for many years thereafter, Federalist John Marshall headed the Supreme Court.
Marshall was a strong nationalist. He was JA’s Sec. of State.
JA appointed him Chief Justice shortly before TJ assumed office.
Marshall established the Court’s power to review laws passed by Congress and the states.
1803: Marbury v. Madison was the first landmark decision of the Marshall Court.
On the eve of leaving office, JA had appointed a number of justices of the peace for DC.
Madison, TJ’s Sec. of State, refused to issue the commissions to these “midnight justices.”
4, including William Marbury, sued for their offices.
The Court declared unconstitutional the section of the Judiciary Act of 1789 that allowed the courts to order executive officials to deliver judges’ commissions.
It exceeded the power of Congress as outlined in the Const., and was therefore void.
Marbury, in other words, may have been entitled to his commission, but the Court had no power under the Const., to order Madison to deliver it.
On the immediate issue, the Jefferson Admin., got its way.
But the cost, as TJ saw it, was high.
Significance: The Supreme Court had assumed the right to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Const., - a power known as judicial review.
The greatest irony of TJ’s presidency involved his greatest accomplishment.
This resulted not from astute American diplomacy, but because the rebellious slave in Saint Domingue defeated forces sent by Napoleon Bonaparte to reconquer the island.
To take advantage of the sudden opportunity to purchase Louisiana, TJ had to abandon his conviction that the fed., govt., was limited to powers specially mentioned in the Const.
Since the Const., said nothing about buying foreign territory, TJ had to amend his strict constructionist beliefs.
The vast Louisiana territory had been ceded by France to Spain in 1762 as part of the reshuffling of colonial possessions at the end of the French and Indian War.
France regained the territory in 1800.
Soon after taking office, TJ learned of the arrangement.
TJ had long been concerned about American access to the Port of New Orleans, which lay within the territory at the mouth of the Mississippi River.
The right of trade through NO, essential for farmers, had been acknowledged in Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795 between the USA and Spain.
TJ feared that a far more powerful France might try and interfere with American commerce.
He dispatched envoys to France offering to purchase New Orleans.
Needing $5 million for military campaigns in Europe, Bonaparte offered to sell the entire LA Territory.
The cost, $15 million (about $250 million today) made the LA Purchase one of history’s greatest real estate bargains.
In a stroke, TJ doubled the size of the USA.
The LA Purchase ended the French presence in North America.
1804: TJ dispatched an expedition led by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark to explore the LA Purchase.
Their objectives were to study the area’s plants, animal life, and geography, and to discover how the region could be exploited eonomically.
TJ hoped the explorers would establish trading relations with western Indians and locate a water route to the Pacific Ocean = the old Northwest Passage to Asia.
Spring 1804: The most famous exploring party in American history left St. Louis.
April 1805: After spending the winter in ND, they resumed their journey.
They were now accompanied by 15 year old Shoshone women Sacajawea, the wife of a French fur trader, who served as interpreter.
1806: They returned, bringing with them an immense amount of information about the region as well as numerous plant and animal specimens.
Reports about geography, plant and animal life, and Indian cultures filled their daily journals.
Although they failed to locate and land route to the Asia, they demonstrated the possibility of overland travel to the Pacific coast.
The success of the journey helped strengthen the idea that American territory was destined to reach all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
The only part of LA with a significant non-Indian population in 1803 was the region around N.O.
When the US took control, the city had 8,000 inhabitants, including nearly 3,000 slaves and 1,300 free persons of color.
Incorporating this diverse population in the US was by no means easy.
French and Spanish law had given free blacks nearly all the same rights as white citizens.
Slaves in LA, and FL and TX under Spanish rule, enjoyed legal protections unknown in the US.
Spain made it easy for slaves to obtain their freedom through purchase or voluntary emancipation by their owners.
Slave women had the right to go to court for protection against cruelty or rape by their owners.
The treaty that transferred LA., to the US promised that all free inhabitants would enjoy “the rights, advantages, and immunities of citizens.”
Spanish and French civil codes, unlike American law, recognized women as co-owners of family property.
Under American rule, LA., retained this principle of “community property” within marriage.
But free blacks suffered a steady decline in status.
LA., soon adopted one of the most sweeping slave codes in the South, forbidding blacks to “ever consider themselves the equal of whites” and limiting the practice of manumission and access to the courts.
LA slaves had enjoyed far more freedom under the rule of tyrannical Spain than as part of the liberty-loving US.
The LA Purchase also demonstrated that despite its vaunted isolation from the Old World, the US continued to be deeply affected by events throughout the Atlantic world.
European wars directly influenced the livelihood of American farmers, merchants, and artisans.
TJ hope to avoid foreign entanglements, but he found it impossible as president to avoid being drawn into the continuing wars of Europe.
Even as he sought to limit the power of the national govt., foreign relations compelled him to expand it.
Only a few months after taking office, TJ employed the very navy whose expansion by JA he had strongly criticized.
The Barbary states on the coast of Africa had long preyed on shipping in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, receiving tribute from several countries, including the US, to protect their vessels.
1801: TJ refused demands for increased payments and the pasha of Tripoli declared war on the US.
The naval conflict lasted until 1084, when an American squadron won a victory at Tripoli Harbor
Far more serious in its impact on the US, than the Barbary pirates, was the war between Britain and France in 1803.
America would be dragged into a war with GB.
Some historians have labeled the War of 1812, America’s Second War for Independence.
According to international law, neutral nations had a right to trade nonmilitary goods with countries at war.
1806: Britain and France had declared the other under a blockade, seeking to deny trade with America to its rival.
The Royal navy had resumed the practice of impressment.
End of 1807: GB had seized over 6,000 American sailors claiming they were British citizens and deserters.
This included men from the US warship Chesapeake which the British frigate Leopold bombarded and boarded in American waters off the coast of Maryland.
To TJ, the economic health of the US required freedom of trade.
American farmers needed access to markets in Europe and the Caribbean.
As colonial patriots had done in the 1760s and 1770s, he decided to use trade as a weapon.
12/1807: He persuaded Congress to enact the Embargo Act of 1807.
This Act placed a ban on all American vessels sailing to foreign ports.
For a believer in limited govt., this was an amazing exercise of federal power.
TJ hoped the embargo would lead Europeans to stop their interference with American shipping and also reduce the occasion for impressments.
1808: American exports plummeted by 80%
Unfortunately, neither GB nor FR, locked in a death struggle, took notice.
But the embargo devastated the economies of American port cities.
3/1809: Just before his term ended, TJ signed the Non-Intercourse Act which barred trade not only with GB and FR but provided that if either side rescinded its edicts against American shipping, commerce with that country would resume.
TJ left office at the lowest point of his career.
He had won a sweeping re-election in 1804.
1808: His handpicked successor, James Madison (JM), won an easy victory.
The problems with GB and FR fell to JM to solve.
The embargo failed to achieve its diplomatic aims and was increasingly violated by American shippers and resented by persons whose livelihood depended on trade.
1810: Madison adopted a new policy.
Congress enacted a measure known as Macon’s Bill No. 2.
This allowed trade to resume but provided that if either GB or FR ceased interfering with American rights, the president could reimpose the embargo on the other.
With little to lose, since GB controlled the seas, French emperor Bonaparte announced that he had repealed his decrees against neutral shipping.
But GB continued to attack American vessels and stepped up impressments.
Spring 1812: JM reimposed the embargo on GB.
Meanwhile, a group of younger congressmen, mostly from the West, were calling for war with GB.
Known as war hawks, this new generation of political leaders had come of age after American won independence and were strong nationalists.
Their leaders included Henry Clay of KY and John C. Calhoun of SC.
The war hawks spoke passionately of defending the national honor against GB insults.
They also had more practical goals in mind, notably the annexation of Canada.
Many southern war hawks pressed for the conquest of FL., a haven for fugitive slaves owned by GB’s ally Spain.
Members of Congress also spoke of the necessity of upholding the principle of free trade and liberating once and for all from European infringements on American independence.
The growing crisis between the US and GB took place against the background of deteriorating Indian relations in the West.
TJ had long favored the removal beyond the Mississippi River of Indian tribes who refused to cooperate in “civilizing” themselves.
The Louisiana Purchase made this policy more feasible.
TJ pursued efforts to purchase Indian lands west of the Appalachian Mts.
He encouraged traders to lend money to Indians, in the hope that accumulating debt would force them to sell some of their holdings, thus freeing up more land for “our increasing numbers.”
1800: Nearly 400,000 American settlers lived west of the Appalachian Mts., far outnumbering the remaining Indians.
Their seemingly irreversible decline in power led some Indians to rethink their opposition to assimilation.
Among the Creek and Cherokees, a group of men led by Major Ridge and Chief John Ross endorsed the federal policy of promoting “civilization.”
Their views infuriated nativists who wished to root out European influences and resist white encroachment on Indian lands.
A more militant message was expounded by two Shawnee brothers, Tenskwatawa and Tecumseh.
Tenskwatawa called for complete separation from whites, the revival of traditional Indian culture, and resistance to federal policies.
Tecumseh sought to revive Neolin’s pan-Indian alliance of the 1760s.
He asked: “Where are the Pequot? Where are the Narragansett, the Mohican, the Pocanet, and other powerful tribes of our people? They have vanished before the avarice and oppression of the white man, as snow before the summer sun.”
Tecumseh proclaimed that Indians must recognize that they were a single people and unite in claiming “a common and equal right in the land.”
He repudiated the chiefs who had sold land to the federal govt.
“Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of his children?”
1810: Tecumseh called for attacks on American frontier settlements.
11/1811: American forces, under William Henry Harrison, destroyed Indian forces in the Battle of Tippecanoe.
Reports that GB was encouraging Tecumseh’s efforts contributed to the coming of the War of 1812.
June 1812: President Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war.
American nationality, the President declared, was at stake – “would Americans remain an independent people,” or become “colonists and vassals” of Great Britain.
The vote revealed a deeply divided country.
Both Federalists and Republicans representing the states from NJ northward voted against the war.
The South and West were strongly in favor.
In retrospect, it seems foolhardy for a disunited and militarily unprepared nation to go to war with one of the world’s two superpowers.
Fortunately for the US, GB at the outset was preoccupied with the struggle in Europe.
But GB easily repelled two feeble American invasions of Canada and imposed a blockade that all but destroyed American commerce.
1814: Having defeated Bonaparte, GB invaded the US.
British forces seized Washington, DC, burned the White House, while the govt., fled for safety.
JM’s wife Dolly Madison was saved from the burning White House by a slave.
The Americans did enjoy a few military successes.
8/1812: The American frigate Constitution (Old Ironsides) defeated the British Guerriere.
9/1813: Commodore Oliver Perry defeated a British naval force on Lake Erie.
1814: A British assault on Baltimore was repulsed when Fort McHenry at the entrance to the harbor withstood a British bombardment.
This was the occasion when Francis Scott Key composed “The Star Spangled Banner.”
The war also produced significant victories over western Indians who had sided with the British.
3/1814: An army of Americans and pro-assimilation Cherokee and Creeks under the command of Andrew Jackson defeated hostile Creeks known as Red Sticks at the Battle of Horsehoe Bend killing more than 800.
AJ dictated terms of surrender that required the Creeks to cede more than half their land to the federal govt.
Although the treaty was signed in Dec. 1814, ships carrying the news of the agreement did not reach American until after the Battle of New Orleans had been fought.
The Treaty restored the previous status quo.
No territory exchanged hands, nor did any provisions relate to impressment or neutral shipping rights.
Considering that the war had not been a military success for the USA, the Treaty of Ghent was about as good as could be expected.
A number of contemporaries called the War of 1812 the Second War for Independence.
Despite widespread opposition to the war, it confirmed the ability of a republican government to conduct a war without surrendering its institutions.
Andrew Jackson a national hero.
The war broke the remaining power of Indians in the Old Northwest and significantly reduced their holdings in the South, opening rich new lands to American settlers (slaveholders).
Americans sense of separateness from the Old World grew stronger. Increase nationalism.
End of the Federalist Party.
They called for amending the Const., to eliminate the 3/5 clause that strengthened southern political power, and to require a 2/3 vote of Congress for the admission of new states, declaration of war, and laws restricting trade.
The Hartford Convention did not call for secession or disunion.THE HARTFORD CONVENTION
The Convention had already adjourned before AJ’s victory in New Orleans.
In speeches and sermons, political and religious leaders alike proclaimed that AJ’s victory revealed, once again, that a divine hand oversaw America’s destiny.
The Federalists could not free themselves from the charge of lacking patriotism.
Within a few years, their party no longer existed.THE HARTFORD CONVENTION
The urban commercial and financial interests it championed represented a small minority in an expanding agricultural nation.
Yet the country stood on the verge of a profound economic and social transformation that Republicans feared.
The Feds., elitism and distrust of popular self-govt., placed the Federalists more and more at odds with the new nation’s democratic values.
Yet in their final moments, they raised an issue – southern dominance of the national govt., - that would long outlive the party.THE END OF THE FEDERALIST PARTY
But the war revealed how far the US still was from being a truly integrated nation.
With the BUS having gone out of existence, the country lacked a uniform currency and found it almost impossible to raise funds for the war effort.
Given the primitive state of transportation, it proved very difficult to move men and goods around the country.NATIONALISM AND ITS DISCONTENTS
A new national bank.
A tariff on imported goods to protect American industry. (Protectionism)
Federal financing of improved roads and canals. (Internal improvements)
Government-sponsored “internal improvements” proved to be the most controversial part of the American system.
Congress enacted an internal-improvement program drafted by Calhoun only to be astonished when Madison, on the eve of his retirement from office in March 1817, vetoed the bill.
Madison had become convinced that allowing the government to exercise powers not mentioned in the Constitution would be dangerous to personal liberty and Southern interests.
He believed that a constitutional amendment was needed before the government built roads and canals.
The other 2 aspects of the American System became law.
The Tariff of 1816 offered protection to goods that could be produced in the USA, especially cheap cotton textiles, while admitting tax-free those that could not be manufactured at home – many Southerners supported the tariff believing that it would enable their region to develop a mfg., base to revival N.E. but it never happened = slavery.
A new Bank of the United States was created, in 1816, with a 20 year charter from Congress.
They promoted economic growth by helping to finance mfg and commerce and extending loans to farmers for the purchase of land, tools, consumer goods, and , in the south, slaves.
They also printed paper money.
In the 19th century, paper money consisted of notes promising to pay the bearer on demand a specific amount of “specie” = gold or silver.
The value of the currency issued by individual banks depended on their reputation for stability.
Since banks often printed more money than the specie in the vaults, the value of paper money fluctuated wildly.BANKS AND MONEY
Because it held all the funds of the fed., govt., it accumulated a large amount of paper money issued by local banks, which had been used to purchase land.
The BUS could demand payment in gold and silver from a local bank in exchange for that bank’s paper money.
This prospect was supposed to prevent local banks from acting improperly, for if it could not provide the specie when asked, it would have to suspend operations.BANKS AND MONEY
The resumption of trade with Europe created a huge overseas market for American cotton and grain.
Coupled with the rapid expansion of settlement into the West, this stimulated demands for loans to purchase land, which banks were only happy to meet by printing more money.
The land boom was especially acute in the South, where the Cotton Kingdom was expanding.THE PANIC OF 1819
The demand for land plummeted and speculators lost millions as the price of western land fell.
The BUS, followed by local banks, began calling in the loans.
Farmers and businessmen who could not pay the loans declared bankruptcy and unemployment rose in eastern cities.THE PANIC OF 1819
Those suffering from the economic downturn pressed the state and national govts for assistance.
Many states, especially in the West, responded by suspending the collection of debts.
The Panic of 1819 deepened many Americans distrust of banks.
The BUS was widely blamed for the panic.
Several states retaliated against the BUS by taxing its local branches.THE PANIC OF 1819
Marshall acknowledged that the Const., nowhere mentions the right of lawmakers to issue corporate charters.
But, he wrote, where the aim of legislation – in this case to promote the “general welfare” was legitimate, “all means which are … not prohibited … are constitutional.”
MD., Marshall concluded, could not tax the BUS.McCULLOCH v. MARYLAND (1819)
1821: Missouri presented to Congress its new constitution, which not only protected slavery but prohibited free blacks from entering the state.
Since some northern states still considered blacks citizens, this seemed to violate the federal Constitution’s “comity” clause, which requires states to recognize the rights of citizens of other states.THE MISSOURI COMPROMISE (THE COMPROMISE OF 1820)
“It disclosed a secret; it revealed the basis for a new generation of parties … Here was a new party really formed … terrible in its progress the emancipation of all their slaves, threatening in its immediate effect that southern dominance which has swayed the Union for more than twenty years.”
The uprisings, which appeared to Americans to be implementing the principles of 1776, inspired a wave of sympathy in the US.
1822: The Monroe Admin., became the first govt., to extend diplomatic recognition to the new Latin American republics.
JQA feared that Spain would try to regain its colonies.
1823: JQA drafted a section of JMon’s annual message to Congress that became known as the Monroe Doctrine.THE MONROE DOCTRINE
The US would oppose any further efforts at colonization by European powers in the Americas.
The US would abstain from involvement in the wars of Europe.
Monroe warned European powers not to interfere with the newly independent states of Latin America.
For many decades, it remained the cornerstone of American foreign policy.
It claimed for the US the role of dominant power in the Western Hemisphere.
For JQA, the commercial implications were as important as the political ones.
1823: Latin America was a major market for GB goods and British citizens were heavily involved in mining, banking, and commercial enterprises there.
JQA hoped that the US could eventually assume GB’s economic role in Latin America.THE MONROE DOCTRINE
As required by the Const., Clay, who finished fourth, was eliminated, and the choice between the other 3 fell to the H of R.
Sincerely believing JQA to be the most qualified candidate and most likely to support his American System, Clay threw his support behind JQA, helping to elect him.
Clay soon became JQA’s Sec. of State.THE ELECTION OF 1824
Although he was a Federalist, he cast one of N.E., few votes in favor of TJ’s embargo, arguing that his region must rise above sectional self-interests to defend the national good.
Given the intense political passions of the time, he was forced to resign his seat as a result of his vote, and soon abandoned the Federalist Party.
He was not an engaging figure.
He described himself as “a man of cold, austere, and foreboding manners.”THE NATIONALISM OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS
At a time when many Americans felt that govt. authority posed the greatest threat to freedom, JQA astonished many listeners with the bold statement “liberty is power.”
His proposals alarmed strict constructionists.
JQA’s administration spent more on internal improvements than his 5 predecessors combined, and it enacted a steep increase in tariff rates in 1828.
But the rest of his ambitious ideas received little Congressional support.THE NATIONALISM OF JOHN QUINCY ADAMS