Law enforcement contact with arab americans and other middle eastern groups
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Law Enforcement Contact with Arab Americans and Other Middle Eastern Groups. Chapter 8. Learning Objectives for Chapter 8. Describe the historical background, demographics, and diversity within the Arab American and other Middle Eastern communities in the United States

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Law enforcement contact with arab americans and other middle eastern groups

Law Enforcement Contact with Arab Americans and Other Middle Eastern Groups

Chapter 8


Learning objectives for chapter 8

Learning Objectives for Chapter 8

  • Describe the historical background, demographics, and diversity within the Arab American and other Middle Eastern communities in the United States

  • Discuss the implications of communication styles, group identification terms, myths and stereotypes, and family structure of Arab Americans and other Middle Eastern groups for law enforcement


Learning objectives for chapter 81

Learning Objectives for Chapter 8

  • Describe the impact of the extended family and community, cultural practices, gender roles, generational differences, adolescent and youth issues on law enforcement contact

  • Highlight key law enforcement concerns and skills, resources, and practices for addressing some of these concerns


Should i say arab arabic or arabian

Should I say Arab, Arabic or Arabian?

  • Arab is a noun for a person, and is used as an

    adjective as in “Arab country”

  • Arabic is the name of the language; it is generally used

    as an adjective only when describing the language

    (as in the "Arabic" language; the "Arabic" script)

  • Arabian is an adjective that refers to Saudi Arabia, the

    Arabian Peninsula, or as in Arabian horse

    Detroit Free Press (2001): 100 Questions You Have Always Wanted to Ask about Arab Americans


Middle eastern countries

1.Aden

2.Bahrain

3.Egypt

4.Iran (non-Arab)

5.Iraq

6.Israel (non-Arab)

7.Jordan

8.Kuwait

9.Lebanon

10.Oman

11.Palestinian Authority

12.Qatar

13.Saudi Arabia

14.Syria

15.Turkey (non-Arab)

16.United Arab Emirates

17.Yemen

Middle Eastern Countries


Not all middle easterners are arabs

Not All Middle Easterners are Arabs

  • Iran, Turkey, and Israel are non-Arab Countries

  • Not all Muslims are Arabs and vice versa

  • Many Arabs are Christians

  • Muslims are composed of dozens of ethnic groups


Other arab countries outside of the middle east

Other Arab Countries Outside of the Middle East

  • Algeria

  • Tunisia

  • Morocco

  • Libya


Iran non arab country

IRAN—Non-Arab Country

  • Iranians use Arabic script but speak mainly Farsi (Persian)

  • Majority are Muslims but of the Shi’ah sect of Islam

  • Persians are the largest group (50 percent) followed by Kurds, Arabs, Turkmen, Armenians and Assyrians

  • Extended family, pride, dignity, and honor are similar to the Arab world


Turkey non arab country

TURKEY—Non-Arab Country

  • Majority speak Turkish but some minority

    groups speak Kurdish, Arabic, and Greek

  • Majority are Muslim

  • Extended family and emphasis on pride,

    dignity, and honor are similar to the Arab world


Israel non arab country

ISRAEL—Non-Arab Country

  • 80 percent of population is Jewish

  • 20 percent of population is Arab (Christians and Muslims)

  • Most Israeli Arabs are Palestinians from the

    Arab-Israeli war in 1948

  • Six-Day War in 1967 resulted in the Israeli occupation

    of land from parts of Egypt, Syria, and Jordan


Arab immigration to u s

Arab Immigration to U.S.

First wave between 1880 and World War I

from Syria (and now known as Lebanon)

  • Immigrated for economic reasons

  • 90 percent Christian

  • Appreciated the police who were respectful

  • Farmers and artisans selling their goods from

    town to town


Arab immigration to u s second wave came after wwii as students professionals

Arab Immigration to U.S.Second Wave Came After WWII as Students/Professionals

  • Immigrated because of economic and political

    instability (brought a “political consciousness”)

  • Largest group—Palestinians (around 1948)

  • Other groups—Lebanese, Yemenis, Syrians, and Iraqis

  • Second wave instrumental in changing the nature of the Arab-American community in the U.S.


Demographics in the u s

Demographics in the U.S.

  • 4.0 million Americans of Arab ancestry (about 1 percent of the U.S. population)

  • 12,000 visas issued in 2000 (with numbers dropping

    after the September 11, 2001 attack)

  • Largest concentrations in Los Angeles/Orange County, Detroit, New York, Chicago, and Washington, D.C.

  • Largest cluster of communities in California


Differences and similarities

Differences and Similarities

  • Come from at least 13 different countries

  • Visitors from the Gulf states tend to be wealthy

  • Immigrants from Jordan, Lebanon, and Palestine tend to be poor


Basic arab values

Basic Arab Values

  • Dignity, honor, and reputation are very

    important

  • Loyalty to family surpasses personal needs

  • Communication is courteous and hospitable

  • Adjusting the truth is self-justified to save face

    and honor


Negative stereotypes

Negative Stereotypes

  • Movies and television have depicted Arabs poorly

  • Portrayed as ruthless terrorists, greedy rich sheiks,

    religious fanatics, belly dancers

  • Western images of Arabs—Ali Baba, Sinbad the

    Sailor, Thief of Baghdad, harem dancers

  • Other stereotypic images in films and television


Terrorist stereotype and post 9 11 backlash

“Terrorist” Stereotype and Post-9/11 Backlash

  • General Arab- and Muslim-bashing after

    September 11, 2001

  • Emergence of new legislations for search and

    detention

  • More stringent tracking of visitors and students

  • Requirements for voluntary interviews


Islamic religion

Islamic Religion

  • Not terrorists or fanatics

  • Is not Mohammadism

  • Allah is God not Mohammad

  • Mohammad was a prophet

  • Allah is the Arabic word for the God of

    Abraham (used by both Arab Muslims and Arab Christians)


The qur an koran and the pillars of islam

The Qur’an (Koran) and the Pillars of Islam

1. Profession of faith in Allah (God)

2. Prayer five times daily

3. Alms giving (concern for the needy)

4. Fasting during the month of Ramadan

(sunrise to sunset)

5.Pilgrimage to Mecca (in Saudi Arabia) at

least once in each person’s lifetime


Taboos in the mosque

Taboos in the Mosque

Other than emergencies, officers are advised to:

  • Avoid entering a mosque, or certainly the prayer

    room of a mosque, during prayers

  • Never step on a prayer mat or rug with your

    shoes on

  • Never place the Qur’an on the floor or put anything

    on top of it


Taboos in the mosque1

Taboos in the Mosque

  • Avoid walking in front of people who are praying

  • Speak softly while people are praying

  • Dress conservatively (both men and women are

    required to dress conservatively; shorts are not

    appropriate)

  • Invite people out of a prayer area to talk to them


Ramadan the holy month

Ramadan: The Holy Month

One of the holiest periods in the Islamic religion:

  • Train oneself in self-discipline

  • Subdue the passions

  • Give people a sense of unity with all Muslims


Ramadan the holy month1

Ramadan: The Holy Month

  • 29th day of the month at the new moon— holiday is over

  • People celebrate up to three days with a feast and other activities

  • Families pray in the Mosque on the last day


Knowledge of religious practices

Knowledge of Religious Practices

  • Help officers avoid creating problems and

    conflicts

  • Provide awareness necessary for clear communications of officer’s procedures

  • Facilitate understanding of similarities

    among Christianity, Judaism, and Islam


Similarities between christianity islam and judaism

1.All three religions are monotheistic, that is, each has a belief in one God

2.All three believe that God is the origin of all, and is all-knowing as well as all-powerful

3.All three have a Holy Book

A. Christianity—Bible

B. Islam—Qur’an

C. Judaism—Torah

*The concept of the 10 Commandments are in all three

Similarities between Christianity, Islam, and Judaism


Arab family structure

Arab Family Structure

  • Arab Americans typically have close-knit families

  • Extended family members are often as close

    as the “nuclear family”

  • Family loyalty and protection is one of the

    highest values of family life

  • Newer refugees and immigrants may be reluctant to

    accept police assistance


Head of the household

Head of the Household

  • The man is overtly the head of the household

  • Wife tends to be more “behind the scenes”

  • Fathers are strict disciplinarians in many Arab

    countries

  • Roles have changed for established Arab Americans

  • Men exert influence and power publicly


Children and americanization

Children and “Americanization”

  • Similar process for the second generation as found in other immigrant groups in the U.S.

  • Shame may be brought to the entire family if an

    individual family member's behavior is

    inappropriate

    —In rare and extreme cases, disgrace to the family can result in a crime against the family member perpetrator by the father or brother, for example


Cultural practices greetings approach touching and hospitality

Cultural Practices: Greetings, Approach, Touching, and Hospitality

  • Address with a title and their last names—

    Mr. or Miss (women keep maiden name)

  • Shake hands and then place right hand over the

    heart; men may kiss on the cheek

  • Public touching of the opposite sex is forbidden in

    the traditional Arabic world

  • Hospitality is a duty or obligation


Verbal and nonverbal communication

Verbal and Nonverbal Communication

  • Warm, expressive and animated

  • Intimate space—“feel a person's breath”

  • Distinctly different gestures

  • Shout when they are excited or angry

  • Emotional and sometimes perceived as loud in communication style


Perception of and relationships with police

Perception of and Relationships with Police

  • Diversity of immigrants’ experiences with the police (before and after being in the U.S.)

  • Major differences in the institution and required responses to police in the Arab world

  • Punishment may be stricter in the home country

  • Police procedures may need to be carefully explained


Women and modesty

Women and Modesty

  • In the traditional Muslim world, women do not

    socialize freely with men and are required to dress modestly

  • Great deal of diversity in the U.S. among the groups

  • Officer’s sensitivity and awareness important

  • Police procedures may require accommodation


Arab small business owners

Arab Small Business Owners

  • Racial and ethnic tensions exist between Arab grocers and liquor-store owners in low income areas (such as Detroit and Cleveland) and members of other minority communities

  • Dynamics between Arab store owners and African Americans are similar to Koreans and African Americans dynamics in the inner cities

  • The non-Arab often views the Arab as having money and exploiting the local residents for economic gain


Hate crimes against arab americans post 9 11

Hate crimes declined as community and law enforcement worked together

Top FBI officials met with Arab and Muslim leaders to provide assurances for safety and prosecution

Continued positive collaboration needed to prevent backlash

Local community efforts reinforced positive relationships

Hate Crimes against Arab AmericansPost-9/11


Sensitivity to new legislation

Sensitivity to New Legislation

  • New Homeland Security measures require that many local and federal law enforcement officers be in contact with Arab American or Muslim American communities

  • Differences in police departmental participation


Sensitivity to new legislation continued

Sensitivity to New Legislation (continued)

  • Importance of communication and collaboration with Arab American and Muslim American community leaders

  • Cultural awareness and sensitivity will help build stronger community relations and cooperative efforts


2006 vera institute of justice study

2006 Vera Institute of Justice Study

“In the aftermath of September 11, Arab Americans have a greater fear of racial profiling and immigration enforcement than of falling victim to hates crimes.”


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