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Chapter 11. Multimedia Devices and Mass Storage. Multimedia. Audio and Video. Multimedia on a PC. Goal To create or reproduce lifelike representations of sight and sound Challenge Data storage is digital Sights and sounds are analog. CPU Technologies for Multimedia.

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chapter 11

Chapter 11

Multimedia Devices and Mass Storage

multimedia
Multimedia
  • Audio and Video

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

multimedia on a pc
Multimedia on a PC
  • Goal
    • To create or reproduce lifelike representations of sight and sound
  • Challenge
    • Data storage is digital
    • Sights and sounds are analog

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

cpu technologies for multimedia
CPU Technologies for Multimedia
  • MMX (Multimedia Extensions)
    • Used by Pentium MMX and Pentium II
  • SSE (Streaming SIMD Extension)
    • Used by the Pentium III
  • SSE2
    • For the Pentium 4 (which can also use MMX and SSE)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

multimedia devices
Multimedia Devices
  • Sound cards
  • Digital cameras
  • MP3 players
  • Video capture cards

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

sound cards
Sound Cards
  • Functions: record/play/edit sound
  • Ports for speakers and microphone
  • Sound-blaster compatible: considered as the sound card standard
  • Sampling accuracy is critical to performance
  • Stages of computerized sound
    • Convert from analog to digital (digitize)
    • Store digital data in compressed data file
    • Reproduce or synthesize sound (digital to analog)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

digitizing sound
Digitizing Sound
  • Analog sound is converted to digital sound by sampling
    • Sample size
      • 8 bits: represent 256 levels of signals
      • 16 bits: represent 65,536 levels of signals
    • Sampling rate(Hz):
      • 22 KHz for ears
      • 44 KHz for music CDs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

compressing sound
Compressing Sound
  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Layer 3)
    • Lossy compression standard for music
    • Reduce size of a sound file by as much as 1:24 without noticeable degradation in quality

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

hands on project install a sound card
Hands-on Project: Install a Sound Card
  • pp. 478 - 481

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

digital cameras
Digital Cameras
  • Scans the field of image set by the picture taker and translates the light signals into digital values
  • Form factors
    • # of pixels: 3.1M, 5M
    • color: real color (32 bits/pixel)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

digital images
Digital Images
  • Displayed on the screen
    • Screen size: 1024 * 768 pixels
  • Printed out on paper
    • Printer resolution: 300 dpi (dots/inch)
    • Photo paper size: 5 inch x 7 inch
    • # of pixels on the photo paper: 5 x 7 x 300 x 300 = 3 M

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

flash ram cards
Flash RAM Cards
  • Flash technology: data is retained without a battery, e.g., SmartMedia, SanDisk, Sony Memory Sticks

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

mp3 players
MP3 Players
  • Devices that play MP3 files

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

video capture cards
Video Capture Cards
  • Captures input from camcorder or directly from TV
  • Features to look for:
    • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) port to interface with digital camcorder
    • Data transfer rates
    • Capture resolution and color-depth capabilities
    • Ability to transfer data back to digital camcorder or VCR
    • Stereo audio jacks
    • Video-editing software

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

video compression standards
Video Compression Standards
  • MPEG-1: TV/VHS quality for business/home applications
  • MPEG-2: DVD/HDTV quality
  • MPEG-4: high-quality video transmissions over the Internet

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

optical storage technology
Optical Storage Technology
  • Patterns of tiny pits on disc surface represent bits, which are readable by a laser beam
  • Major optical storage technologies
    • CD: use CDFS (Compact Disc File System) or UDF (Universal Disk Format)
    • DVD: use only UDF

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

layout of sectors on a cd
Layout of Sectors on a CD

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

slide18
CDs
  • Data are stored as pits (recessed areas) and lands(raised areas)
  • The bits are read by a laser beam
  • Multisession feature
    • Data can be written to the disc at different times

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

how a cd drive can interface with the motherboard
How a CD Drive Can Interface with the Motherboard
  • EIDE interface (most common)
  • SCSI interface with SCSI host adapter
  • Portable drive; plug into external port on PC

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

cd r and cd rw
CD-R and CD-RW
  • CD-R (CD-recordable)
    • Enables “burning” your own CDs
    • Cannot overwrite
    • Inexpensive
    • Can be read by all CD-ROM drives
  • CD-RW (CD-rewritable)
    • Allows overwriting old data with new data
    • Cannot always be read by older drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

hands on project install a cd drive
Hands-on Project: Install a CD Drive
  • pp. 491

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

dvd digital video disc
DVD (Digital Video Disc)
  • Has large storage capacity (8.5 GB one side; 17 GB both sides)
  • Uses UDF file system
  • Uses MPEG-2 video compression; requires MPEG-2 controller to decode compressed data
  • Stores audio in Dolby AC-2 compression
  • Recently: HD-DVD and read-writable DVDs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

dvd drive
DVD Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

dvd devices
DVD Devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

hardware used for backups and fault tolerance
Hardware Used for Backups and Fault Tolerance
  • On standalone PCs or small servers
    • Tapes
    • Removable drives
  • On a PC connected to file server
    • Back up data to a file server

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

removable drives
Removable Drives
  • Can be internal or external
  • Advantages
    • Increase overall storage capacity
    • Easy to move large files between computers
    • Convenient medium for making backups
    • Easy to secure important files

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

types of removable drives
Types of Removable Drives
  • Newer
    • IBM Microdrive
    • JumpDrive by Lexar Media
    • Iomega HDD drive by Iomega
  • Older
    • Iomega 3½-inch Zip drive
    • SuperDisk by Imation

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

ibm microdrive
IBM Microdrive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

jumpdrive
JumpDrive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

iomega hdd drive
Iomega HDD Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

zip drives
Zip Drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

hands on project installing a zip drive
Hands-on Project: Installing a Zip Drive
  • Similar to installing a hard drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

fault tolerance and raid
Fault Tolerance and RAID
  • Fault tolerance
    • Computer’s ability to respond to a fault or catastrophe
  • RAID (redundant array of independent disks)
    • Stores data over an array of disks
    • Appears as a single drive to the users
    • Can automatically recover from a failure
    • May improve the performance

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

raid 0
RAID-0
  • Data strips are written evenly to disk arrays
  • High performance
  • If one disk fails, the data cannot recovered

0

n+1

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n+2

2

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2n

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

raid 1
RAID-1
  • Data are mirrored
  • If one disk fails, the data can be retrieved from the mirrored disk

0

n+1

0

n+1

1

n+2

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A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

raid 5
RAID-5
  • Data strips are written evenly to disk arrays
  • High performance
  • If one disk fails, the data can be recovered by using parity disk

0

n+1

1

n+2

2

n+3

n

2n

Parity

Disk

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

dynamic volumes
Dynamic Volumes
  • The fault tolerance method first introduced by Windows 2000
  • Type of dynamic volumes
    • Simple volume: normal disk drives
    • Spanned volume
    • Striped volume (RAID 0)
    • Mirrored volume (RAID 1)
    • RAID-5 volume

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

hardware raid
Hardware RAID
  • Motherboard IDE controller supports RAID
  • Install a RAID-compliant IDE controller card and disable IDE controller on motherboard
  • Motherboard SCSI controller supports RAID, or install a SCSI host adapter that supports RAID

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition

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