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Chapter 11. Multimedia Devices and Mass Storage. Multimedia. Audio and Video. Multimedia on a PC. Goal To create or reproduce lifelike representations of sight and sound Challenge Data storage is digital Sights and sounds are analog. CPU Technologies for Multimedia.

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

Multimedia Devices and Mass Storage


Multimedia
Multimedia

  • Audio and Video

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Multimedia on a pc
Multimedia on a PC

  • Goal

    • To create or reproduce lifelike representations of sight and sound

  • Challenge

    • Data storage is digital

    • Sights and sounds are analog

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Cpu technologies for multimedia
CPU Technologies for Multimedia

  • MMX (Multimedia Extensions)

    • Used by Pentium MMX and Pentium II

  • SSE (Streaming SIMD Extension)

    • Used by the Pentium III

  • SSE2

    • For the Pentium 4 (which can also use MMX and SSE)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Multimedia devices
Multimedia Devices

  • Sound cards

  • Digital cameras

  • MP3 players

  • Video capture cards

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Sound cards
Sound Cards

  • Functions: record/play/edit sound

  • Ports for speakers and microphone

  • Sound-blaster compatible: considered as the sound card standard

  • Sampling accuracy is critical to performance

  • Stages of computerized sound

    • Convert from analog to digital (digitize)

    • Store digital data in compressed data file

    • Reproduce or synthesize sound (digital to analog)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Digitizing sound
Digitizing Sound

  • Analog sound is converted to digital sound by sampling

    • Sample size

      • 8 bits: represent 256 levels of signals

      • 16 bits: represent 65,536 levels of signals

    • Sampling rate(Hz):

      • 22 KHz for ears

      • 44 KHz for music CDs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Compressing sound
Compressing Sound

  • MP3 (MPEG-1 Layer 3)

    • Lossy compression standard for music

    • Reduce size of a sound file by as much as 1:24 without noticeable degradation in quality

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hands on project install a sound card
Hands-on Project: Install a Sound Card

  • pp. 478 - 481

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Digital cameras
Digital Cameras

  • Scans the field of image set by the picture taker and translates the light signals into digital values

  • Form factors

    • # of pixels: 3.1M, 5M

    • color: real color (32 bits/pixel)

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Digital images
Digital Images

  • Displayed on the screen

    • Screen size: 1024 * 768 pixels

  • Printed out on paper

    • Printer resolution: 300 dpi (dots/inch)

    • Photo paper size: 5 inch x 7 inch

    • # of pixels on the photo paper: 5 x 7 x 300 x 300 = 3 M

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Flash ram cards
Flash RAM Cards

  • Flash technology: data is retained without a battery, e.g., SmartMedia, SanDisk, Sony Memory Sticks

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Mp3 players
MP3 Players

  • Devices that play MP3 files

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Video capture cards
Video Capture Cards

  • Captures input from camcorder or directly from TV

  • Features to look for:

    • IEEE 1394 (FireWire) port to interface with digital camcorder

    • Data transfer rates

    • Capture resolution and color-depth capabilities

    • Ability to transfer data back to digital camcorder or VCR

    • Stereo audio jacks

    • Video-editing software

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Video compression standards
Video Compression Standards

  • MPEG-1: TV/VHS quality for business/home applications

  • MPEG-2: DVD/HDTV quality

  • MPEG-4: high-quality video transmissions over the Internet

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Optical storage technology
Optical Storage Technology

  • Patterns of tiny pits on disc surface represent bits, which are readable by a laser beam

  • Major optical storage technologies

    • CD: use CDFS (Compact Disc File System) or UDF (Universal Disk Format)

    • DVD: use only UDF

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Layout of sectors on a cd
Layout of Sectors on a CD

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


CDs

  • Data are stored as pits (recessed areas) and lands(raised areas)

  • The bits are read by a laser beam

  • Multisession feature

    • Data can be written to the disc at different times

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


How a cd drive can interface with the motherboard
How a CD Drive Can Interface with the Motherboard

  • EIDE interface (most common)

  • SCSI interface with SCSI host adapter

  • Portable drive; plug into external port on PC

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Cd r and cd rw
CD-R and CD-RW

  • CD-R (CD-recordable)

    • Enables “burning” your own CDs

    • Cannot overwrite

    • Inexpensive

    • Can be read by all CD-ROM drives

  • CD-RW (CD-rewritable)

    • Allows overwriting old data with new data

    • Cannot always be read by older drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hands on project install a cd drive
Hands-on Project: Install a CD Drive

  • pp. 491

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Dvd digital video disc
DVD (Digital Video Disc)

  • Has large storage capacity (8.5 GB one side; 17 GB both sides)

  • Uses UDF file system

  • Uses MPEG-2 video compression; requires MPEG-2 controller to decode compressed data

  • Stores audio in Dolby AC-2 compression

  • Recently: HD-DVD and read-writable DVDs

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Dvd drive
DVD Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Dvd devices
DVD Devices

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hardware used for backups and fault tolerance
Hardware Used for Backups and Fault Tolerance

  • On standalone PCs or small servers

    • Tapes

    • Removable drives

  • On a PC connected to file server

    • Back up data to a file server

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Removable drives
Removable Drives

  • Can be internal or external

  • Advantages

    • Increase overall storage capacity

    • Easy to move large files between computers

    • Convenient medium for making backups

    • Easy to secure important files

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Types of removable drives
Types of Removable Drives

  • Newer

    • IBM Microdrive

    • JumpDrive by Lexar Media

    • Iomega HDD drive by Iomega

  • Older

    • Iomega 3½-inch Zip drive

    • SuperDisk by Imation

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Ibm microdrive
IBM Microdrive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Jumpdrive
JumpDrive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Iomega hdd drive
Iomega HDD Drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Zip drives
Zip Drives

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hands on project installing a zip drive
Hands-on Project: Installing a Zip Drive

  • Similar to installing a hard drive

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Fault tolerance and raid
Fault Tolerance and RAID

  • Fault tolerance

    • Computer’s ability to respond to a fault or catastrophe

  • RAID (redundant array of independent disks)

    • Stores data over an array of disks

    • Appears as a single drive to the users

    • Can automatically recover from a failure

    • May improve the performance

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Raid 0
RAID-0

  • Data strips are written evenly to disk arrays

  • High performance

  • If one disk fails, the data cannot recovered

0

n+1

1

n+2

2

n+3

n

2n

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Raid 1
RAID-1

  • Data are mirrored

  • If one disk fails, the data can be retrieved from the mirrored disk

0

n+1

0

n+1

1

n+2

1

n+2

n

2n

n

2n

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Raid 5
RAID-5

  • Data strips are written evenly to disk arrays

  • High performance

  • If one disk fails, the data can be recovered by using parity disk

0

n+1

1

n+2

2

n+3

n

2n

Parity

Disk

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Dynamic volumes
Dynamic Volumes

  • The fault tolerance method first introduced by Windows 2000

  • Type of dynamic volumes

    • Simple volume: normal disk drives

    • Spanned volume

    • Striped volume (RAID 0)

    • Mirrored volume (RAID 1)

    • RAID-5 volume

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


Hardware raid
Hardware RAID

  • Motherboard IDE controller supports RAID

  • Install a RAID-compliant IDE controller card and disable IDE controller on motherboard

  • Motherboard SCSI controller supports RAID, or install a SCSI host adapter that supports RAID

A+ Guide to Managing and Maintaining Your PC, Fifth Edition


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