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Session 2 – 8 th October 2007 Amos Haniff School of Management & Languages. Dissertation & Research Methods. Example research projects. How does on-line gambling effect productivity in the workplace? How do advances in telecommunications effect the work-life balance of ….?

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Dissertation research methods

Session 2 – 8th October 2007

Amos Haniff

School of Management & Languages

Dissertation & Research Methods


Example research projects
Example research projects

  • How does on-line gambling effect productivity in the workplace?

  • How do advances in telecommunications effect the work-life balance of ….?

  • An investigation in to Management fashions and fads

  • How do Edinburgh bus services compare with European bus services in terms of customer needs?

  • An evaluations of cross-culture project teams


Example research projects1
Example research projects

  • Underlying racial prejudice with local government

  • The “glass ceiling” in the 21st century

  • Women managers (CEO); does it make a difference?

    • Case studies

  • How effective is Health & Safety communication in …. Industry?

  • Research questions


Session 2
Session 2

  • Searching Literature

  • Analysing Literature

  • Referencing Literature

  • Plagiarism


Literature review
Literature Review

  • 20-25% dissertation content

  • Involves reading AND appraising other writing in subject area

  • Descriptive AND Analytical

  • Must

    • Know sources of information

    • Understand how library works

    • Collect knowledge on the subject; reading, notes

    • Systematically organise the literature

    • Appraise literature

    • Write review


Literature review function
Literature review function

  • To give reasons why the topic is sufficient importance to researched

  • To provide reader with a brief up-to-date account of discussion of literature and relevant issues.

  • To provide a conceptual and theoretical context in which the topic for research can be situated

  • To discuss relevant research carried out on the same topic or similar topics


Literature review1
Literature review

  • Demonstrate an understanding of the subject

  • Demonstrate a knowledge of previous research

  • Explain the focus of topic and research study

    • Scholarly manner

  • Justify research method

    • Past research

  • Draw conclusions

    • Past research theories

  • Forms the entire basis of the dissertation



2 the library
2. The Library

  • Peter Sandison



The critical review
The Critical Review

  • Deductive approach

    • Identify theories, ideas to test

  • Inductive

    • Explore data and develop theories

  • Competent knowledge

    • Refine questions & Objectives

    • Identify research possibilities

    • Discover explicit recommendations

    • Avoid repetition

    • Sample current opinion

    • Discover approaches / methodologies


Assessing literature
Assessing literature

  • Identify similarities AND contradictions

  • Identify conclusions and reasons

    • Key words: hence, thus, should

    • What do you want me to believe?

    • What is the reason

    • What is the evidence

  • Identify underling assumptions

    • Reasons, conclusions, definitions, meanings

  • Identify recommendations

    • Celebrate!!


Being critical
Being Critical

  • Read with some Scepticism

  • Question what you read

  • Refer to assess research by recognised experts in chosen area?

  • Consider and discuss research that supports AND opposes your idea

  • Make judgements regarding value of other research

  • Justify arguments

  • Distinguish between fact and opinion


Literature review process
Literature review process

Broad scope of research

Narrow scope of research

Focused research


Literature review2
Literature Review

  • 1 chapter

    • Discussing question and objectives

  • 2,3,4 Chapters

    • Each section of the question and objectives

  • Not a listing of previous studies

  • Not a regurgitation of

    • Common text books

    • Lectures notes

  • Structured, Critical Review


Literature review process1
Literature Review Process

  • Start at general level

  • Provide an overview of key themes

  • Summarise, compare & contrast research of key writers

  • Narrow down to highlight previous research to own subject

  • Provide detailed account of the findings of previous research

  • Highlight aspects where your research provides fresh insights

  • Lead reader to methodology


Conducting literature review
Conducting Literature Review

  • Ensure literature relate clearly to research question and objectives?

  • Ensure most relevant and significant experts / theories are discussed

  • Ensure most relevant and significant literature is discussed

  • Ensure most up to date literature is discussed

  • Ensure you reference


Why reference
Why Reference?

  • Evidence of background reading

  • Acknowledge the research of others

  • Avoid accusations of plagiarism

  • Forces you to include complete information

  • Easy to trace the background research used

  • Helps other researchers

  • Web-site guides

    • http://www.lib.flinders.edu.au/services/infolit/nureference.pdf

    • Google “Harvard referencing guide” PDF


Terminology
Terminology

  • CITING

    • acknowledging in the text

  • CITATION

    • the passage or words quoted within your text

  • REFERENCE(S)

    • detailed description of works used

    • Alphabetical list of sources / references

  • BIBLIOGRAPHY

    • Additional reading not cited in the Reference section


Harvard system of referencing
Harvard system of Referencing

  • Harvard system

    • Author-date system

  • Any one source must appear in two places

  • In the body of the text, when reference is made to third persons ideas.

    • Surname & year (Keane 1999)

    • Surname, Year & page (Keane, 1999:53)

  • At the end of the dissertation (or assignment) where a full description of the reference is made.

    • Name, year, source, publisher

    • Identifying where the reference can be found


Harvard system of referencing1
Harvard system of Referencing

  • 2 elements to referencing other peoples work

  • Citing in the body of the text, when reference is made to third persons ideas.

    • Brief acknowledgement

    • Surname & year

  • Referencing at the end of the dissertation (or assignment) where a full description of the reference is made.

    • Name, year, source, publisher

    • Identifying where the reference can be found


Quotations
Quotations

  • Less than 30 words: include in the text with single quotation marks.

    • It was Roy Keane (2002) who stated that ‘some of the people who come to Old Trafford can’t spell even football never mind understand it’

  • More than 30 words: the text must be set apart

    • Keane (2002, p.263) is of the opinion that he had the right to express his grievances:

      “The article appeared on Thursday morning. It expressed exactly what I felt. I believe people at home has a right to know the truth. The Irish fans are celebrated for the support they give the team”.


Citing in the text
Citing in the text

  • Authors surname and year of publication in brackets

    Porter (1980) suggests that a firm can gain a competitive advantage through focusing on a particular buyer group

    A firm can gain a competitive advantage through focusing on a particular buyer group(Porter 1980)

    Book

    “A firm can gain a competitive advantage through focusing on a particular buyer group”(Porter 1980, p.123)

    (Porter 1980:123)


Citing two or three authors
Citing Two or Three Authors

  • Krogh & Roos (1995) suggest that a firm sustains it competitive advantage by resisting erosion by competitors.

  • A firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Krogh & Roos 1995).

  • A firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Krogh, Roos & Stienberg 1995).


Citing four or more authors
Citing Four or More Authors

  • A firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Krogh et al 1995).

    • and others

  • Krogh et al (1995) suggests a firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors.

    No author

  • a firm sustains it competitive advantage if it resists erosion by competitors (Strategic digest 2003)


Citing more than one source
Citing More than one source

  • Both Conner (1991) and Spanos & Lioukas (2001) agree that an attractive strategic position is of crucial importance.

  • However, current literature suggests that sustaining a competitive advantage may prove an impossible task (Oliver 2000; Fiol 2001; Williams 1992).


Citing an electronic reference
Citing an Electronic reference

  • Know author

    • Author & Date

    • Author & current year

  • No author

    • Title of page

    • A recent study (Strategy on-line 2005) shows that cost is the main factor.


Citing a work described in another work
Citing a work described in another work

  • Original idea by one author (primary source) found in work by another author (secondary source)

  • Acknowledge both sources

  • Clarke’s 1992 study (cited in Brown 1995) demonstrates…

  • Brown (1995) in reporting a 1992 study by Clark states…


Citing
Citing

  • Citing two or publications with same author and date

  • List work alphabetically

    • Porter (1980a)

    • Porter (1980b)

    • Competitive strategy is about winning (Porter 1980a; Barney 1981b)

  • Citing authors with same surname

  • Use Initials

    • (Porter, P 1980)

    • AC Porter (2001)


Personal communications
Personal communications

  • E-mails, letters, telephone conversations, lecture presentations

  • Obtain permission of the person in order to quote them

  • Give the communicators initials and surname

  • Include the type of communication in the text

  • Give the exact date of the communication

    • In an email communication on 4th February 2005, A Jones outlined….

  • Do not include communications is the reference list


The reference list
The Reference List

  • The Reference list gives the FULL reference

  • Alphabetical list at the end of your work

  • Authors with several publications must be listed in Chronological order, starting with earliest date.

  • Authors with multiple publications in the same year

    • Smith, A. C. (2005a)

    • Smith, A. C. (2005b)

  • The most important thing to remember is to keep your reference list consistent


Book references
Book references

  • Author(s) / Editor(s) / Organisation

  • Year in brackets

  • Title and Subtitle (as it appears on the title page).

    • In italics or underlined

    • Normally only first word in capitals (normal grammar applies)

  • Series/Volume no. (if present).

  • Edition. (2nd edn, 3rd edn)

  • Publisher.

  • Place of publication


Referencing a thesis or dissertation
Referencing a Thesis or dissertation

  • Bloodgood , J. B. (1997) Sustaining competitive advantage: The role of tacit knowledge in a resource-Based perspective. PhD Thesis. University of Carolina. USA


Journal references
Journal References

  • Author(s) of article

  • Year in brackets

  • Article title.

  • Journal title (In Italics),

  • Volume, Part, Issue, Month/Season

  • Page numbers.


Journal references1
Journal References

  • Barney, J. B., (1991) Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management. Vol.17, No.1, pp.99-120

  • Mahoney, J. T., & Pandian, R., (1992) The Resource-Based View within the conversation of strategic management. Strategic Management Journal. Vol.13, pp.368-380

  • Harrison, J. S., Hitt, M. A., Hoskisson, R. E., & Ireland, R.D. (1991) Synergies and Post-Acquisition Performance: Differences versus Similarities in Resource Allocations. Journal of Management. Vol.17, No.1, pp.173-190


Working papers
Working papers

  • O’Farrell, P. N., Hitchens, D. M., & Moffat, L. A., (1991) The competitive advantage of business service firms: A matched pair analysis of the relationship between generic strategy and performance. Working Paper No.1. Department of Economics, Queens University, Belfast.


Conference papers
Conference Papers

  • Haniff A. P., & Kaka A. P., (2005) A framework for development of a knowledge database for use within the construction industry. Paper presented at the International Conference of Project Management. Salford University. 13th-15th June 2005.

  • Haniff A. P., & Kaka A. P., (2005) A framework for development of a knowledge database for use within the construction industry. Proceedings of the International Conference of Project Management. Salford University press. United Kingdom.


Newspaper articles
Newspaper articles

  • Newspaper article where author known

  • Jonquieres, G.D., (1992), “Decline in Cross-Border Deals”, Financial Times, January 10, Section II, p. 17.

  • Newspaper article where author unknown

  • Economist, (1992a), “Mad Mergers in Europe”, February 1, p. 18.

  • Economist, (1992b), “Perrier Bottled”, March 21, p. 107.


Internet sources
Internet sources

  • Author(s) / Editor(s) if known

  • Year (in brackets)

  • Title (Italics)

  • [Internet].

  • Edition

  • Place of publication,

  • Publisher’s name (if available).

  • Available from: <URL>

  • [Date accessed].


Internet sources1
Internet sources

Rowett, S. (1998) Higher Education for capability: autonomous learning for life and work [Internet]. Higher Education for Capability. Available from: <http://www.lle.mdx.ac.uk/hec/about.htm> [Accessed 8 August 2006].

The Architecture Foundation. (1999) Architecture Foundation Online [Internet]. Available from: <http://www.architecturefoundation.org.uk/home.htm> [Accessed 17 August 2006].


Internet sources2
Internet sources

  • Reuters, (1996), “EC says no to ‘gentleman’s agreement’ with UEFA over Bosman”, Internet Soccer Features. http://www.nando.net/newsroom/sports/oht/1996/oth/soc/feat/archive/020196/soc/51483.html. Last accessed 10th November 2005

  • Show date of last accesses.


Official reports
Official reports

  • Official Documents, e.g., Accounting Standards

  • ABS, (1994), FRS 5: Reporting the Substance of Transactions, Accounting Standards Board.

  • In the text you give (ASB, 1994) as the reference.


Tv video
TV & Video

  • Commercial videos:

    Yol (1982) Directed by Yilmaz Guney. London, Artificial Eye [video:VHS].

  • Television programmes and off-air recordings:

    World in Action (1995) All work and no play. London, ITV, 21st January [DVD].


Sound recordings
Sound recordings

Mozart, W.A., Symphony no. 38 in D major, Vienna Philharmonic. Polydor. [sound recording:compact disk].

Porter, C., (1966) Mack the Knife. Performed by Robbie Willaims 2002, Swing when you’re winning. Chyrstal.[sound recording:compact disk].

Children language and literature. (1982) Milton Keynes, Open University Press [sound recording:audiocassette].


Diagrams in the text
Diagrams in the text

Figure 21: Population of developing countries

Source: Smith, J.P. (1999) Developing countries. Joe Press. NY. pp.53


Endnote
Endnote

  • Referencing System

  • PC Caledonia


Plagiarism
Plagiarism

“Plagiarism involves the act of taking the ideas, writings or inventions of another person and using these as if they were one’s own, whether intentionally or not.”

  • Quoting or paraphrasing material without citing the source of that material..

  • Quoting a source without using quotation marks

  • Copying or using others work without permission

  • Citing sources not used.

  • Submitting the same work for different classes


Plagiarism1
Plagiarism

  • “Direct quotes should only be used when necessary” (Haniff 2005)

  • Haniff (2005) suggests that the unnecessary use of direct quotes should be avoided.

  • It is recommended that the overuse of direct quotes hinders the flow of a literature review (Haniff 2005)

  • Check guidelines

  • Use Harvard referencing


Next week
Next week

  • Task

    • Sketch an outline “mind map” on acetate of lit review

    • Questions

    • Objectives

  • Research strategy

  • Data collection methods


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