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Lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration…. He would do whatever needed to preserve the Union He had no intent to interfere, directly or indirectly, with the institution of slavery. The Civil War was underway!. The North vs. The South The Union vs. The Confederacy

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lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration

Lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration…

He would do whatever needed to preserve the Union

He had no intent to interfere, directly or indirectly, with the institution of slavery

the civil war was underway
The Civil War was underway!

The North vs. The South

The Union vs. The Confederacy

The Blue vs. the Gray

april 12 1861 charleston south carolina
April 12, 1861Charleston, South Carolina

Lincoln planned to maintain

control over the South by

holding federal fortifications

in the secession states

Jefferson Davis, elected

Confederate President,

saw this as a weakness

and refused to allow it.

Lincoln sends a supply ship

to fortify Fort Sumter,

a Union garrison.

For two days, Confederate troops bombarded the fortress ,

forcing the federal forces to surrender.

an ill prepared north readied for war
An ill-prepared North readied for war.

Northern forces:

-only 16,000 men

-No general staff

-only 42 ships ready

Lincoln calls up 75,000 militia to active service for 90 days.

In the South:

-500,000 men enlisted for service

-Had prepared leaders who

graduated from West Point


Did not have enough guns

or uniforms

july 1861 the battle of bull run manassas
July,1861The Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
  • First major battle of war

30,000 Union v 22,000 Confed.

General Thomas J. Jackson

Uses 9000 inexperienced Confed.

Troops to force Union troops

to retreat to Washington

(gets nickname “Stonewall”)

Things seem to be going

the South’s way…..

Battles With Dual Names

Date of Battle Confederate Name Federal Name

July 21, 1861  First Manassas  Bull Run 

Aug. 10, 1861  Oak Hills  Wilson\'s Creek 

Oct. 21, 1861   Leesburg  Ball\'s Bluff 

Jan. 19, 1862  Mill Springs  Logan\'s Cross Roads 

Mar. 7-8, 1862  Elkhorn Tavern Pea Ridge 

Apr. 6-7, 1862  Shiloh  Pittsburg Landing 

June 27, 1862 Gaines\'s Mill  Chickahominy 

Aug. 29-30,1862 Second Manassas   Second Bull Run 

Sept. 1, 1862  Ox Hill Chantilly 

Sept. 14, 1862  Boonsboro  South Mountain 

Sept. 17, 1862  Sharpsburg  Antietam 

Oct. 8, 1862  Perryville  Chaplin Hills 

Dec. 31, 1862- Jan 2, 1863  Murfreesboro  Stones River 

Apr. 8, 1864  Mansfield Sabine Cross Roads 

Sept. 19, 1864  Winchester  Opequon Creek


Union General – Ulysses S. Grant

  • The Battle of Shiloh
  • Union Victory
  • 13,000 Union and 11,000 Confederate dead


S – Troops began to desert service

Davis enacts the first conscription law in US history (a draft)

Rich Southerners hired substitutes to serve in their place

($5K to $6K)

Or sent their slaves

Davis also –

-imposed martial law

(military in control)

-collected taxes from

farm and plantation owners

-Forced farmers to switch

from cash crops to food crops

-Used slaves for labor (impressment)

-Took control of all Southern railroads

august 1862
August 1862

The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)

  • Confederate General Robert E. Lee


  • Union General George B. McClellan
  • Lee’s plans are discovered (cigars)
  • McClellan is slow to react

September 17 – Sharpsburg, MD

14 hours of intense fighting

over a small bridge

Robert E. Lee

George B McClellan

4,800 dead

18,500 wounded

3,500 would die from injuries

Darkness mercifully ended the

single bloodiest day in American History

the ironclads
The Ironclads

New ship technology

  • Wooden ships covered with steel plates one foot thick
  • South = The Virginia (Merrimack)
  • North = The Monitor

Sunday March 9, 1862

After 6 hours and no damage

the battle was over

The era of the wooden ship died!


CSS Virginia

comes from the

USS Merrimack

USS Monitor

Damage for the battle

the h l hunley
The H.L. Hunley

Thomas Park & Thomas Lyons

The first attack submarine

Used a spar torpedo that was stuck on the hull of the enemy ship

  • McClellan is replaced with General Hooker (end of 1862)

- he ignored a direct presidential order at Battle of Richmond

January 1, 1863

President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation

It promised to free the slaves of those secession states who did not return to the Union!

but only if the north wins
But only if the North wins!

By the Emancipation Proclamation 3,063,392 slaves were set free, as follows:

Arkansas 111,104 Alabama 435,132 Florida 61,753

Georgia 462,232 Mississippi 436,696 North Carolina 275,081

South Carolina 402,541 Texas 180,682 Virginia (part) 450,437

Louisiana (part) 247,734

the battle of gettysburg
The Battle of Gettysburg

July 1st, 2nd &3rd, 1863

75,000 Confed. meet 97,000 Union

Confederates use their resources to attempt to break the Union line.

July 3 – Pickett’s Charge

15,000 Confed. troops marches across 1000 open yards.

10,000 Confed. soldiers would be wounded or killed.

Union losses:

3,155 dead 23,049 wounded

Confederate losses:

4,965 dead 17,287 wounded

It is the deadliest engagement of the Civil War!

  • The North could resupply
  • Marks the beginning of the end for the South
november 19 1863
November 19, 1863
  • President Lincoln is invited to speak at the dedication ceremony for Gettysburg National Cemetery

The Gettysburg Address

-267 words long

Ignites the fighting spirit

of the North

Lincoln is determined to win!


Page 1

Page 2


1864 – The Beginning of the End

  • - Battle of the Wilderness
  • Battle of Spotsylvania

Sherman’s March to the Sea

- Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman

Marches from the Mississippi River to Atlanta, Georgia

destroying everything in his path

Much southern resistance was destroyed!

1865 only virginia and the carolinas remained
1865 – Only Virginia and the Carolinas remained
  • Sherman and Grant agree to meet in Richmond
  • Lee is forced to retreat across the Appomattox River

-after losing 7,000 more men, Lee makes a fateful decision

April 9, 1865

General Robert E. Lee surrendered to

General Ulysses S. Grant

at Appomattox Courthouse

(McLean House)

The War is Over!

the cost of war
The Cost of War!

620,000 soldiers lost their lives

-360,000 Union

-260,000 Confederate

(nearly equals the 680,000 lost in ALL other was US has been involved with)

A stronger National government

-took over jobs managed by states

-currency, militias, taxes and more

A new sense of Nation / Union

and Lincoln is reelected

april 14 1865
April 14, 1865

President Lincoln decides to celebrate by taking a play in at Ford’s Theater

Little did he know

the third act would

be so painful!

john wilkes booth
John Wilkes Booth

Original plot to kidnap Lincoln and force N. to surrender

After Appomattox, it becomes a plot to kill the President and other cabinet members

(VP & Sec of State)

8 other conspirators

included a woman

(Mary E. Surratt)

Booth shoots Lincoln in the head
  • He leaps to the stage (breaking a leg)

and escapes into the night

Co-conspirator fails to kill

William Seward – Sec of State

(Lewis Paine)

  • Lincoln is carried across the

street and lies motionless until

7:22 a.m. the next morning

He dies of his wounds

Booth would flee and later be shot in the neck by Sgt. Boston Corbett

“Providence directed me”

The remaining conspirators were hung for their roles

Mary E. Surratt became the first woman executed by the Federal Government

On April 15, 1865

Andrew Johnson was sworn in as the President of the United States

Lincoln never saw his lasting affect on the nation.