Lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration…. He would do whatever needed to preserve the Union He had no intent to interfere, directly or indirectly, with the institution of slavery. The Civil War was underway!. The North vs. The South The Union vs. The Confederacy
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Lincoln drove home two points during his inauguration…
He would do whatever needed to preserve the Union
He had no intent to interfere, directly or indirectly, with the institution of slavery
The North vs. The South
The Union vs. The Confederacy
The Blue vs. the Gray
Lincoln planned to maintain
control over the South by
holding federal fortifications
in the secession states
Jefferson Davis, elected
saw this as a weakness
and refused to allow it.
Lincoln sends a supply ship
to fortify Fort Sumter,
a Union garrison.
For two days, Confederate troops bombarded the fortress ,
forcing the federal forces to surrender.
-only 16,000 men
-No general staff
-only 42 ships ready
Lincoln calls up 75,000 militia to active service for 90 days.
In the South:
-500,000 men enlisted for service
-Had prepared leaders who
graduated from West Point
Did not have enough guns
30,000 Union v 22,000 Confed.
General Thomas J. Jackson
Uses 9000 inexperienced Confed.
Troops to force Union troops
to retreat to Washington
(gets nickname “Stonewall”)
Things seem to be going
the South’s way…..
Battles With Dual Names
Date of Battle Confederate Name Federal Name
July 21, 1861 First Manassas Bull Run
Aug. 10, 1861 Oak Hills Wilson's Creek
Oct. 21, 1861 Leesburg Ball's Bluff
Jan. 19, 1862 Mill Springs Logan's Cross Roads
Mar. 7-8, 1862 Elkhorn Tavern Pea Ridge
Apr. 6-7, 1862 Shiloh Pittsburg Landing
June 27, 1862 Gaines's Mill Chickahominy
Aug. 29-30,1862 Second Manassas Second Bull Run
Sept. 1, 1862 Ox Hill Chantilly
Sept. 14, 1862 Boonsboro South Mountain
Sept. 17, 1862 Sharpsburg Antietam
Oct. 8, 1862 Perryville Chaplin Hills
Dec. 31, 1862- Jan 2, 1863 Murfreesboro Stones River
Apr. 8, 1864 Mansfield Sabine Cross Roads
Sept. 19, 1864 Winchester Opequon Creek
Union General – Ulysses S. Grant
S – Troops began to desert service
Davis enacts the first conscription law in US history (a draft)
Rich Southerners hired substitutes to serve in their place
($5K to $6K)
Or sent their slaves
Davis also –
-imposed martial law
(military in control)
-collected taxes from
farm and plantation owners
-Forced farmers to switch
from cash crops to food crops
-Used slaves for labor (impressment)
-Took control of all Southern railroads
The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
September 17 – Sharpsburg, MD
14 hours of intense fighting
over a small bridge
Robert E. Lee
George B McClellan
3,500 would die from injuries
Darkness mercifully ended the
single bloodiest day in American History
New ship technology
Sunday March 9, 1862
After 6 hours and no damage
the battle was over
The era of the wooden ship died!
comes from the
Damage for the battle
Thomas Park & Thomas Lyons
The first attack submarine
Used a spar torpedo that was stuck on the hull of the enemy ship
- he ignored a direct presidential order at Battle of Richmond
January 1, 1863
President Lincoln issues the Emancipation Proclamation
It promised to free the slaves of those secession states who did not return to the Union!
By the Emancipation Proclamation 3,063,392 slaves were set free, as follows:
Arkansas 111,104 Alabama 435,132 Florida 61,753
Georgia 462,232 Mississippi 436,696 North Carolina 275,081
South Carolina 402,541 Texas 180,682 Virginia (part) 450,437
Louisiana (part) 247,734
July 1st, 2nd &3rd, 1863
75,000 Confed. meet 97,000 Union
Confederates use their resources to attempt to break the Union line.
July 3 – Pickett’s Charge
15,000 Confed. troops marches across 1000 open yards.
10,000 Confed. soldiers would be wounded or killed.
3,155 dead 23,049 wounded
4,965 dead 17,287 wounded
It is the deadliest engagement of the Civil War!
The Gettysburg Address
-267 words long
Ignites the fighting spirit
of the North
Lincoln is determined to win!
1864 – The Beginning of the End
Sherman’s March to the Sea
- Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman
Marches from the Mississippi River to Atlanta, Georgia
destroying everything in his path
Much southern resistance was destroyed!
-after losing 7,000 more men, Lee makes a fateful decision
April 9, 1865
General Robert E. Lee surrendered to
General Ulysses S. Grant
at Appomattox Courthouse
The War is Over!
620,000 soldiers lost their lives
(nearly equals the 680,000 lost in ALL other was US has been involved with)
A stronger National government
-took over jobs managed by states
-currency, militias, taxes and more
A new sense of Nation / Union
and Lincoln is reelected
President Lincoln decides to celebrate by taking a play in at Ford’s Theater
Little did he know
the third act would
be so painful!
Original plot to kidnap Lincoln and force N. to surrender
After Appomattox, it becomes a plot to kill the President and other cabinet members
(VP & Sec of State)
8 other conspirators
included a woman
(Mary E. Surratt)
and escapes into the night
Co-conspirator fails to kill
William Seward – Sec of State
street and lies motionless until
7:22 a.m. the next morning
He dies of his wounds
Booth would flee and later be shot in the neck by Sgt. Boston Corbett
“Providence directed me”
The remaining conspirators were hung for their roles
Mary E. Surratt became the first woman executed by the Federal Government
On April 15, 1865
Andrew Johnson was sworn in as the President of the United States
Lincoln never saw his lasting affect on the nation.