chapter 28 network management chapter 29 multimedia
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Chapter 28. Network Management Chapter 29. Multimedia. Network Management System and SNMP Concepts. Internet Audio/Video. Streaming stored audio/video refers to on-demand requests for compressed audio/video files

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internet audio video
Internet Audio/Video
  • Streaming stored audio/video refers to on-demand requests for compressed audio/video files
  • Streaming live audio/video refers to the broadcasting of radio and TV programs through the Internet
  • Interactive audio/video refers to the use of the Internet for interactive audio/video applications

Computer Networks

digitizing audio and video
Digitizing Audio and Video
  • Digitizing audio
    • Voice: 64 Kbps = 8,000 samples x 8 bits
    • Music: 44,100 samples x 16 bits ->

705.6 Kbps for mono, 1,411 Mbps for stereo

  • Digitizing video
    • 25 frames/second, 1024 x 768 pixels, 24 bits/pixel
    • 2 x 25 x 1024 x 768 x 24 = 944 Mbps
  • Compression is needed to send video (audio) over the Internet
  • Audio Compression
    • Predictive encoding: GSM(13Kbps), G.729(8Kbps),

G.723.3(6.4 or 5.3 Kbps)

    • Perceptual encoding: MP3 (MPEG audio layer 3)
  • Video Compression
    • Image compression: JPEG
    • Video compression: MPEG

Computer Networks

streaming stored av 1
Streaming Stored AV: (1)
  • First approach: Using a Web server

Computer Networks

streaming stored av 2
Streaming Stored AV: (2)
  • Second approach: Using a Web server with metafile

Computer Networks

streaming stored av 3
Streaming Stored AV: (3)
  • Third approach: Using a media server

Computer Networks

streaming stored av 4
Streaming Stored AV: (4)
  • Fourth approach: Using a media server and RTSP

Computer Networks

real time interactive av
Real-time Interactive AV
  • Time relationship

Computer Networks

real time interactive av1
Real-time Interactive AV
  • Jitter is introduced in real-time data by the delay between packets

Computer Networks

timestamp
Timestamp
  • To prevent jitter, we can timestamp the packets and separate the arrival time from the playback time

Computer Networks

playback buffer
Playback Buffer
  • A playback buffer is required for real-time traffic

Computer Networks

characteristics of real time av communication
Characteristics of Real-time AV Communication
  • A sequence number on each packet is required for real-time traffic
  • Real-time traffic needs the support of multicasting
  • Translation means changing the encoding of a payload to a lower quality to match the bandwidth of the receiving network
  • Mixing means combining several streams of traffic into one stream.
  • Support from transport layer protocol
    • TCP, with all its sophistication, is not suitable for interactive multimedia traffic because we cannot allow retransmission of packets.
    • UDP is more suitable than TCP for interactive traffic. However, we need the services of RTP, another transport layer protocol, to make up for the deficiencies of UDP

Computer Networks

real time transport protocol rtp
Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
  • RTP is designed to handle real-time traffic on the Internet
  • RTP uses a temporary even-numbered UDP port

Computer Networks

real time transport control protocol rtcp
Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)
  • RTCP is designed to control the flow and quality of data and allow the recipient to send feedback to the source or sources
  • RTCP uses an odd-numbered UDP port number that follows the port number selected for RTP

Computer Networks

voice over ip
Voice over IP
  • Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) by IETF and H.323 by ITU-T
  • SIP

Computer Networks

sip simple session
SIP Simple Session

Computer Networks

tracking the callee
Tracking the Callee

Computer Networks

h 323 example
H.323 Example

Computer Networks

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