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Chapters 1&2: Introduction and Research and Methods. Dr. Arra PSY 201. Lecture Overview. Understanding Psychology Doing Research in Psychology Perspectives in Psychology. The Study of Psychology. Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

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Chapters 1 2 introduction and research and methods

Chapters 1&2: Introduction and Research and Methods

Dr. Arra

PSY 201

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Lecture overview
Lecture Overview

  • Understanding Psychology

  • Doing Research in Psychology

  • Perspectives in Psychology

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


The study of psychology
The Study of Psychology

  • Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental processes

    • Psychology values empirical evidence

    • Psychology employs critical thinking

    • Psychology employs systematic research methods

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Pseudopsychologies
Pseudopsychologies

  • Pseudopsychologiesare unreliable approaches that do not use the scientific method

  • Examples of pseudopsychologies include:

    • Astrology: system that tries to relate personality to the movement of the stars

    • Palmistry: idea that reading a person’s character from the lines on their palms

    • Psychokinesis: notion that humans can move objects through mental concentration

    • Follicology: notion that personality characteristics are related to hair color

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Goals of psychology
Goals of Psychology

  • Description of behavior using careful observations

  • Explanation involves identifying the cause(s) of behavior

  • Predictionallows for specification of the conditions under which a behavior will occur or not

  • Psychological knowledge can be used to assist changes in behavior

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Psychological research
Psychological Research

  • Two forms of psychological research:

    • Basic research seeks answers for theoretical questions

      • E.g. How is hunger controlled by the brain?

      • Can be done in the lab ‘bench research’

    • Applied research seeks answers for specific application problems

      • E.g. Organizational psychology studies leadership, job satisfaction, job training, and development

      • Often done in the field

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Areas of psychology

Clinical

Educational

School

Industrial/organiz-ational

Developmental

Social

Comparative

Neuropsychology

Health psychology

Cognitive

Areas of Psychology

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Sample specialties in psychology
Sample Specialties in Psychology

  • Biopsychology – investigates the relationship between biology, behavior, and mental processes; looks at brain and nervous system

  • Clinical Psychology – specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders

  • Counseling Psychology – overlaps with clinical psychology; not in clinical setting; not as severe patient

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Sample specialties in psychology1
Sample Specialties in Psychology

  • Developmental Psychology – studies the course of human growth and development from conception until death

  • School Psychology – studies the process of education; works to promote the welfare of children in schools

  • Industrial/Organizational Psychology – applies the principles of psychology to the workplace

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Psychology degrees by area
Psychology Degrees By Area

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Doing research in psychology

Doing Research In Psychology!!

The Scientific Method

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Overview of the scientific method
Overview of the Scientific Method

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


The experiment
The Experiment

  • An experiment involves a set of controlled conditions that aims to confirm a hypothesis

  • Hypothesisrefers to a statement of cause and effect:

    • “Higher environmental temperatures lead to more aggression”

    • “Exposure to marijuana increases appetite”

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Experimental variables
Experimental Variables

  • To test a hypothesis, an experimenter defines the variables of the hypothesis:

    • Cause: Independent variable (IV)

      • Marijuana: Plain cigarette versus cigarette containing 5 mg of THC (the active ingredient in marijuana)

    • Effect: Dependent variable (DV)

      • Appetite: Grams of ice cream consumed in 1 hour

  • The experimenter manipulates the IV and measures the DV to test the hypothesis

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Research issues
Research Issues

  • Experimental Group

  • Control Group

  • Experimenter Bias

  • Double-Blind Study

  • Placebo

  • Random Assignment

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Descriptive research
Descriptive Research

  • Naturalistic observation refers to the systematic recording of behavior in a natural state or habitat

    • Jane Goodall observing apes in the wild

  • Surveysare instruments designed to sample attitudes or behaviors

    • Asking persons at a rally how they feel about animal rights issues

  • A case study is an in-depth study of a single person

    • Freud used the case study method to probe anxiety

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Correlational research
Correlational Research

  • The correlation technique indicates the degree of association between 2 variables

  • Correlations vary in direction:

    • Positive association:

    • Negative association:

    • No relation:

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Correlations
Correlations

  • Correlations also vary in the strength of the association

    • Zero correlation: no relationship between the 2 variables

    • Strong correlation: knowing the value of one variable permits one to accurately estimate the value of the other variable

      • Strong correlation can be positive or negative

  • Correlations can be seen in scatter plots

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Correlation difficulties
Correlation Difficulties

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Biological research

Dissections

Lesions

Case studies

Electrical recording

Electrical stimulation

Split-brain surgery

CT scan

PET scan

MRI scan

fMRI scan

Biological Research

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Ethical issues in research
Ethical Issues in Research

  • Respecting the rights of human research participants involves:

    • Informed consent is an explanation of a study and the responsibilities of experimenter and participant

    • Deception involving the subjects must be justified

    • Confidentiality of study information must be maintained

    • Debriefingrefers to explaining the research process to the subjects at the end of the study

  • Animal research must be justified and must minimize discomfort to participants

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Early pioneers of psychology
Early Pioneers of Psychology

  • Experimental Psychology – (1870’s – 1880’s)

    Wilhelm Wundt – founder of experimental psychology

    Established first psychology laboratory in Germany

    Interested in studying the thought processes

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Early pioneers in psychology
Early Pioneers in Psychology

  • Structuralism

  • 1890’s

  • Edward Titchener, founder, one of Wundt’s followers

  • Brought study to U.S.

  • Studied thought processes, conscious mind

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Early pioneers in psychology1
Early Pioneers in Psychology

  • Functionalism

  • 1890’s

  • William James, James Dewey

  • Investigated “functions” or purposes of behavior

  • Continued to study the conscious mind

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Modern psychology views
Modern Psychology Views

  • Psychoanalytic

  • Sigmund Freud, Austrian Physician

  • Late 1800’s, early 1900’s

  • Study of the unconscious mind

  • Study of dreams; unconscious material that is brought to surface by counselor

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Modern psychology views1
Modern Psychology Views

  • Behaviorism

  • Early 1900’s

  • John Watson, B.F. Skinner

  • Emphasize observable behaviors, overt behaviors

  • Measure, scientifically study these behaviors

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


Modern psychology views2
Modern Psychology Views

  • Gestalt Psychology

  • Founded by Max Wertheimer

  • Early 1900’s

  • Believed in the importance of mental activities

  • Insisted that experience be studied as a “whole”

© 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Huffman: PSYCHOLOGY IN ACTION, 7E


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