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WWII. From Isolationism To Total War. American Isolationism. Isolationists like Senator Lodge, refused to allow the US to sign the Versailles Treaty. Security treaty with France also rejected by the Senate. July, 1921  Congress passed a resolution declaring WW I officially over!.

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WWII

From Isolationism

To

Total War


American isolationism
American Isolationism

  • Isolationists like Senator Lodge, refused to allow the US to sign the Versailles Treaty.

  • Security treaty with France also rejected by the Senate.

  • July, 1921  Congress passed a resolution declaring WW I officially over!

Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge, Sr. [R-MA]


Washington disarmament conference 1921 1922
Washington Disarmament Conference(1921-1922)

  • Long-standing Anglo-Japanese alliance (1902) obligated Britain to aid Japan in the event of a Japanese war with the United States.

  • Goals  naval disarmament and the political situation in the Far East.


Five power treaty 1922
Five-Power Treaty (1922)

  • A battleship ratio was achieved through this ratio:US Britain Japan France Italy 5 5 3 1.67 1.67

  • Japan got a guarantee that the US and Britain would stop fortifying their Far East territories [including the Philippines].

  • Loophole  no restrictions on small warships



Dawes plan 1924
Dawes Plan(1924)


Young plan 1930
Young Plan(1930)

  • For three generations, you’ll have to slave away!

  • $26,350,000,000 to be paid over a period of 58½ years.

  • By 1931, Hoover declared a debt moratorium.


Kellogg briand pact 1928
Kellogg-Briand Pact (1928)

  • 15 nations dedicated to outlawing aggression and war as tools of foreign policy.

  • 62 nations signed.

  • Problems no means of actual enforcement and gave Americans a false sense of security.


Foreign policy
Foreign Policy

  • Cuba – nullification of Platt Amendment

  • Mexico – Did not intervene in 1938 oil seizure by Cardenas Gov’t

  • Economic Diplomacy

    • London Economic Conference (1933) - FDR pulled out

    • Recognition of USSR – to boost economy

    • Philippines – Tydings-McDuffie Act (Ind. By 1946)

    • Reciprocal Trade Agreements – executive authority to reduce tariffs if other nations would


Fp cont
FP Cont…

  • Nationalist Isolation (especially amongst Republicans)

  • View of WWI – mistake, Nye Investigations (1934) – greed of bankers was to blame

  • Neutrality Acts – bipartisan, 1935-1937

    • ‘35 = prohibit arms sales to belligerent nations, forbid travel on belligerent ships

    • ‘36No loans to belligerents

    • ‘37No arms to either side in Spanish Civil War



  • Quarantine Speech 1937

    • Democracies should “quarantine” aggressors

  • Preparedness

    • Neutrality & arms buildup (2/3 increase)

    • Isolationists generally accepted as deterrent


Ludlow amendment 1938
Ludlow Amendment (1938)

  • A proposed amendment to the Constitution that called for a national referendum on any declaration of war by Congress.

  • Introduced several times by Congressman Ludlow.

  • Never actually passed.

Congressman Louis Ludlow[D-IN]


The war begins
The War Begins

  • U.S. opposed to Hitler but still wanted to stay out

  • FDR – British Navy crucial to U.S. security, loosening of neutrality laws

  • Cash and Carry 1939 – belligerents could purchase arms if transported in its own ships & paid in cash

  • Destroyers-for bases deal 1940

  • Selective Service Act (1940)

    • Registration of men 21-35

    • Training 1.2 million men


Election of 1940
Election of 1940

  • FDR v Wendell Willkie – had never run before

    • Criticized 3rd term, New Deal

    • Agreed on Defense

  • FDR wins 3rd election w/54%



Arsenal of democracy
Arsenal of Democracy

  • FDR quote 1940

  • Four Freedoms Speech (Jan, 1941) – loans to British for defense

    • Speech, religion, want, fear

  • Lend-Lease Act (March, 1941)

    • Replaces cash & carry

  • Atlantic Charter (August, 1941)

    • Secret meeting of FDR & Churchill

    • Goals of peace – self-determination, no terr expansion, free trade


Lend lease act 1941
“Lend-Lease” Act (1941)

Great Britain.........................$31 billionSoviet Union...........................$11 billionFrance......................................$ 3 billionChina.......................................$1.5 billionOther European.................$500 millionSouth America...................$400 millionThe amount totaled: $48,601,365,000


Tension w japan
Tension w/Japan

  • War against China, expansion into British Burma, Dutch East Indies, French Indochina

  • Axis Alliance

  • U.S. prohibits steel exports, cut off access to oil, froze credit

  • Negotiations: U.S. wanted: return to Open Door, end to Japanese expansion

  • Japan wanted: end to U.S. embargo on oil




Ph a date that will live in infamy
PH – “a date that will live in infamy”

  • Dec 7, 1941

  • 2 hours

  • 2,400 killed

  • 1,100 killed on USS Arizona

  • Surprise attack?

  • Declaration of War on Dec 8

  • Germany & Italy declare war on U.S.


Home front
Home Front

  • War Production Board (WPB)

  • Office of War Mobilization (OWM)

  • Cost + system

  • Gov’t contracts led to booming business > almost no unemployment by 1944

  • 2x Axis production

  • Office of Price Admin. (OPA)

    • Price freezes, wage & rent controls, rationing of meat, gas, sugar, tires


Home front1
Home Front

  • Unions

    • No strike agreement

    • Workers angered by wage freezes +big profits

    • Smith-Conally Anti-Strike Act > RR takeover by gov’t in ‘44

  • Financing the war

    • Income tax hike

      • Automatic deductions begin

    • War Bonds


Impact on society
Impact on Society

  • Rural to urban for jobs

  • Midwest to west coast

  • African Americans - 2nd Great Migration – wartime industry, continued discrimination as civilians & soldiers, “Double V” for victory slogan, increase in NAACP, CORE founded

  • Mexican Americans – 300,000 served, braceros agreement > zoot suit riots


Impact on society1
Impact on Society

  • Native Americans – many leaved res for jobs in factories or military, code talkers

  • Japanese Americans – 20,000 served but exec order led to internment > challenged in Korematsu (1944)

  • Women – 200,000 served (WAC), 5 mill in labor force, Rosie the Riveter

  • African Americans- Second migration








Conferences
Conferences

  • Yalta (Feb, 1945) – postwar conditions, free elections, denazification, USSR to join UN,

    • Stalin, Churchill, Roosevelt

  • Potsdam (July/August, 1945) – demilitarization, denazification, democracy, prosecution of war criminals >>> Nuremburg Trials

    • Stalin, Churchill, Truman


Citations
Citations

  • Slides 2-8, 11, 13, 17, 19, 22, 23

    courtesy of Susan M Pojer

    Horace Greeley High School

    Chappaqua, NY


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