Reconstruction. How do we unite the country, with so many hard feelings?. Reconstruction Vocabulary. Assassinated oath Black Codes Klux Klux Klan Literacy Tests Poll Tax Grandfather Clause Reconstruction Impeachment Radical Republicans Military Reconstruction Act Freedmens Bureau.
How do we unite the country, with so many hard feelings?
President Lincoln’s 10% Plan as early as December 1863
1863 - Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (Abraham Lincoln)
1864 - Wade-Davis Bill (Benjamin Wade and Henry Davis)
1865 - Lincoln is assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
Andrew Johnson (Democrat) becomes president and announces his Presidential Reconstruction.
1866 - Radical and moderate Republicans take control of
Reconstruction process (Freedman’s Bureau, Civil Rights Act, 14th Amendment).
Congressional Elections - Moderate and Radical Republicans gain a 2/3 majority in Congress.
1867 - Republicans pass the Reconstruction Act of 1867.
Congress impeaches Johnson.
1868 - Grant (Republican) wins the presidential election.
Northern leaders wanted to insure slavery would be abolished. Moderates thought this could be accomplished as soon as Confederate armies surrendered and the southern states repealed secession and ratified the 13th Amendment.
All of this happened by the end of September 1865
General Lee surrendering to General Grant at Appomattox Courthouse
Many in Congress wanted
on the rebellious southern
was a compromise bill between the moderate Republicans and the Radical Republicans
Required 50% of the number of 1860 voters to take an oath of allegiance (swearing they had never voluntarily aided the rebellion ).
Lincoln wanted 10% of the number of 1860 voters take an “oath of Loyalty”.
Required a state constitutional convention before the election of state officials.
Containedspecific safeguards of freedmen’s liberties.
CongressmanHenry W. Davis(R-MD)
Ratified in December, 1865.
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States or any place subject to their jurisdiction.
Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
Former Slaves and Wounded Union Veterans Celebrating the Passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1866
The act declared that all persons born in the U.S. were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition of servitude, excluding Indians.
Civil authorities in the territories were subject to military supervision.
Required new state constitutions, including black suffrage and ratification of the 13th and 14th Amendments.
In March, 1867, Congress passed an act that authorized the military to enroll eligible black voters and begin the process of constitution making.
Federal reconstruction took the vote away from 10,000 to 15,000 white men who had been Confederate officials or soldiers
-Divided the South into military territories.
Southerners were highly resentful of their loss of control over their southern territories
The First Black Voters
were laws and constitutional amendments enacted by the ex- Confederate states following the Civil War.
The purpose of these laws were to restrict the new rights gained by the newly freed slaves.
These restrictive laws ensured a supply of inexpensive agricultural labor, and maintain white control both economically and politically.
Former slaves once the war was over, if they didn’t stay on the plantations to work had to move around to find work.
Sharecropping: an arrangement where a landowner rents their land out for the renter grow their crops and once the crops are harvested the renter shares the profit from the crops .
Most black families became sharecroppers and barely got by because of debt involved in the arrangement.
Share in 1867Cropping
Sharecropping in 1867
Grant did attempt to enforce Reconstruction.
His presidency racked by scandals
Republican party divided between two groups.
With the Republican party divided it had little energy left to devote to Reconstruction.
All of these and more transform the United States, and we become important on the World’s stage.
The South tried to weaken the plan by passing Black Codes.