Evolution Study Guide. 1 . ____________ refers to the phenomenon where changes are noticed in a species over time.
1. ____________refers to the phenomenon where changes are noticed in a species over time.
2. ____________developed the theory of natural selection based on his observations of plants and animals on the Galapagos islands. This theory supported the ideas of evolution.
3. __________is a theory that explains evolution. It relates to the phrase “survival of the fittest” because it shows that individuals with characteristics suited to an environment will survive and have a better chance of reproducing. Organisms without these characteristics will not be able to reproduce and therefore will die. (Example: giraffe neck length and pepper moths of Manchester)
4. Trueor False. The changes that occur during natural selection are due to genetics.
5. A ________is a well tested concept that explains a wide range of observations.
similarities in DNA sequences, similarities in embryos, fossils, similarities in body structure
7. True or False. A change in a single organism over time is an example of evolution.
8. ______are the preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past.
9. According to the diagram below, which layer of soil would contain the youngest fossils?
10. A characteristic that enables an organism to live more successfully in its environment is a(n)__________.
11. A group of similar organisms that can mate with one another and produce fertile offspring is a ___________.
12. The body color of a moth can vary just as height among humans can vary. These differences between members of the same species are known as ____________.
13. A scientist surveyed 18 islands for animal species that live only on each island. According to the graph, what is the distance to the mainland of the island with the greatest number of unique animal species? _______
14. Due to a drought in the giraffe’s habitat, only the giraffes with the longer necks were able to get the food they needed. This meant that giraffes with shorter necks were at a disadvantage. In order for the giraffe species to beat extinction, should the females choose mates with longer necks or mates with shorter necks? Explain your answer based on what you learned about evolution.
15. Which animals are more closely related: raccoons and lesser pandas or lesser pandas and giant pandas?
16. When did giant pandas and bears evolve from their common ancestor? __________
17. Which animal would have DNA that is most similar to lesser pandas? ___________
18. When a species produces more offspring than it has resources, this is known as______________
19. If there are more organisms than resources, ____________will occur between members of the same species. This does not mean animals of the same species will fight one another but simply that some will find enough to eat while others will not.
20. What are the four parts of natural selection?______________________________________________
21. Explain the term homologous structures. If two organism have homologous structures they have common____________
22. In modern times, where does MOST evidence for evolution come from? _________
24. What is the difference between gradualism and punctuated equilibrium? ______________________
25. Where are the oldest fossils found? A. In the bottom layers of rocks. B. In the top layers of rocks. C. In the middle layers of rocks. D. In museums
Why did the peppered moths evolve? ________________________________________