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Cellular Respiration

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Cellular Respiration. Comparing Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration. Living things need energy…. Our bodies have a lot of work to do every day… Moving muscles, Building essential molecules, and Transporting substances across cell membranes. Where do we get energy?.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

Living things need energy…

  • Our bodies have a lot of work to do every day…
    • Moving muscles,
    • Building essential molecules, and
    • Transporting substances across cell membranes.
where do we get energy
Where do we get energy?
  • Food provides the energy living things need to grow and reproduce.
  • Food is the source of the material our cells use to build new molecules.
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How much energy is present in food?

  • Quite a lot!
  • One gram of the sugar glucose (C6H12O6) when burned in the presence of oxygen, releases 3,811 calories of heat energy.
  • A calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
slide6

What is cellular respiration?

  • Cellular respiration is the process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen.

6O2 + C6H12O6

6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP energy

carbon dioxide + water + ATP

oxygen + glucose

Breakdown of Glucose (exergonic reaction) releases energy in a form that can be used by cells

ATP

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Where does cellular respiration take place?

3Pathways

  • The beginning pathway of cellular respiration, glycolysis, takes place in the cell cytoplasm.
  • The two remaining pathways—the Krebs Cycle (matrix) and
  • ETC electrontransport(Cristae)—take place inside the mitochondria of the cell.
slide8

CR occurs in almost all organisms.

CR occurs in organelles called _____________

mitochondria.

Mitochondrial structure:

Inner membrane

Outer membrane

Cristae

Matrix

cytoplasm

slide9

Aerobic Cellular respiration

  • Glycolysis: a glucose molecule is split in half to produce two molecules of pyruvic acid 2(3C sugar) = 2 ATP made
  • Krebs Cycle: pyruvic acid is broken down to produce carbon dioxide, NAD, FADH2 & 2 ATP. Sometimes called the citric acid cycle because citric acid is first formed.
  • Electron Transport Chain: uses the high-energy electrons in NAD & FADH2 from the Krebs Cycle to convert ADP to ATP = 32 total: H2O is produced

GLUCOSE C6H1206

2 ATP 2 ATP 32 ATP

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Totals

  • Gycolysis 2 ATP
  • Krebs Cycle 2 ATP
  • Electron Transport Chain 32 ATP
  • Total = 36 ATP
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What happens if oxygen is not available?

  • Glycolysis is then followed by a different pathway.
  • The combined process of this pathway and glycolysis is called fermentation.
  • Fermentation releases energy from food molecules by producing ATP in the absence of oxygen (Anaerobic process)
slide12

Anaerobic Processes

  • No oxygen is required for these processes.
  • Includes glycolysis ( the breakdown of glucose) and fermentation.
  • Some bacteria and yeast are examples of anaerobes.
slide13

Fermentation

  • Pyruvic Acid can be broken down by:
    • Alcoholic fermentation..AF
    • Lactic acid fermentation…LAF
  • AF makes ethyl alcohol and CO2– yeast can ferment apple juice to fill a balloon.
  • LAF makes lactic acid. It can build up in muscles during strenuous exercise and cause burning and soreness.
slide14

Book Video to summarize Cellular Respiration:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bz5-T4p8WEQ&feature=related

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