The Swimming Pool  Room Study

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The Research Question. The Question: Will plants be healthy in a swimming pool room?The swimming pool is a great place to strip down and relax. Entering the poolroom, even walking past it, one can feel the sensation of tropical atmosphere. Warmth and humidity levels mirror those of the tropics. The only problem is that there is no pleasant foliage to enjoy, and the air is infused with chlorine. Another issue is that of human health. It is known that chlorine aggravates the respiratory sys31834

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The Swimming Pool Room Study

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1. The Swimming Pool Room Study Joanne Royko Environmental Technology III Kent state University Professor Adil Sharag-Eldin, Ph. D

2. The Research Question The Question: Will plants be healthy in a swimming pool room? The swimming pool is a great place to strip down and relax. Entering the poolroom, even walking past it, one can feel the sensation of tropical atmosphere. Warmth and humidity levels mirror those of the tropics. The only problem is that there is no pleasant foliage to enjoy, and the air is infused with chlorine. Another issue is that of human health. It is known that chlorine aggravates the respiratory system of those who have too much exposure to it. For example, some athletic swimmers later develop the conditions of asthma. However, swimming is good exercise, and many doctors prescribe it to their patients

3. Environment of Interest The MACC Annex Swimming Pool Room, Important Features: The 7’ clerestory structure and two large automated vents in the ceiling. The pool is 25 yards square with 8 ½ feet of walkway surrounding it. An office and supply room enclosure sits at the far end. There are 32 6” x 24” air supply grills mounted in the floor at the room’s edge; and one huge 8’ x 4’-4” air intake which also serves as a service way between the poolroom and filter room. The room has an area of approximately 10,000 square feet and is 32 feet high. The windows and floor closest to the pool have accumulated deposits of pool water salts from the splashing and movement of wet people. The concrete floor around the supply ducts is experiencing some creep visible to the observer. At 12:00 noon, five to ten people are present for open swim time. There are classes both before and after open swim session.

4. Causes of Indoor Air Problems The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) determined in their Indoor Air Quality Investigation Results that an inadequate level of outside air is only one ventilation problem from a list of possible causes. NIOSH described some ventilation problems as: Not enough fresh air supplied to the space Poor air distribution and mixing which causes stratification, draftiness and pressure differences between office spaces Humidity extremes or fluctuations Filtration problems caused by improper or no maintenance to the ventilation systems Reducing or eliminating outdoor air (energy conservation measure) Reducing infiltration and exfiltration (energy conservation measure) Lowering thermostats or economizer cycles in winter and raising them in summer (energy conservation measure) Eliminating humidification or dehumidification systems (energy conservation measure) Early afternoon shut-down and late morning start-up of ventilation systems (energy conservation measure) 48% of the indoor air quality problems NIOSH investigated were solved in ways independent of the ventilation system.

5. Causes/Solutions As Percentage of Occurrences: Inadequate ventilation 52% Inside contamination 17% Outside contamination 11% Biological contamination 5% Building fabric contamination 3% Other causes 12% Solutions: Limit pollution at the source Isolate unavoidable sources of pollution Provide for adequate supply and filtering of fresh air Maintain the building and its equipment in clean condition

6. Standards Regarding IAQ Important Recommendations to Promote Good Indoor Air Quality for swimming pool rooms from ASHRAE include: The recommended outdoor air requirement for ventilation for the swimming pool room is .5 CFM per square foot. Swimmers are most comfortable when the relative humidity ranges between 50 to 60%. The maintenance of humidity levels between 40 and 60% are required for comfort, energy consumption, and building protection year-round. Therefore a designer must address the following concerns; humidity control, ventilation requirements for air quality, air distribution, duct design, pool water chemistry, and evaporation rates.   A negative pressure zone of 0.5 to 0.15 inches of water ought to be maintained relative to adjacent areas of the building to prevent moisture and chloramine odor migration. For pools with no spectator areas the recommended air changes per hour range from four to six. In spectator areas six to eight air changes per hour are desired. Complaints from swimmers tend to indicate that the greatest chloramine concentrations occur at the water surface.

7. Hypothesis Statement of Problems of Space and Objective Original Hypothesis: The VOC level is too high for plant life. Unfortunately, finding information concerning safe ingestion rates of chlorine for plant life is difficult, or nonexistent. I therefore felt it necessary to restate the hypothesis to make it easier to test and compare with available information and research.   New Hypothesis: The VOC level is too high for humans; therefore the air exchange rate needs to be maintained at adequate levels in order to keep humans healthy.   Testable Hypothesis The VOC level is too high for humans.   The tool: The Eco Sensor Model C-21 is a VOC meter. It has a LED indicator that warns when there is a high concentration of VOC’s. The number of LED’s that become lit shows the concentration of VOC’s between the extremes of zero and hazardous. One green light is the lowest measurement at one end, and all lights lit is the highest measurement.

8. Eco Sensor Model C-21   

9. Approach/Methodology What are two main factors helping the growth or accumulation of airborne VOC’s? Temperature and humidity. What inhibits the growth or accumulation of VOC’s? Controlled humidity, air filtering and continuous air exchange. How do I determine whether the air is clean enough? Take measurements and compare them to ASHRAE’s standards. What measurement need to be taken? A VOC reading Air changes Relative humidity Dry bulb temperature Wet bulb temperature Carbon dioxide.

10. Project Findings - Plants Plants I concluded from the findings of Dr. B. C. Wolverton that plants do indeed process chemicals from the air. However, to live in a toxic space for long periods of time, each plant has to grow faster than it absorbs the chemical elements in the air. Through a process called photosynthesis, plants ingest some chemicals and store them in the leaves and branches. When the leaves and branches become chemically saturated the limb and foliage falls off and joins the ground biosphere below. The chlorine remains in the fallen plant mass, therefore chlorine is still present in another concoction. Chlorine (Cl) is an atomic element; therefore organisms in the soil won’t break it down. Therefore, it is best to dispose of dead poolroom foliage in an earth friendly manner - by not mixing it with the environment outside. Transpiration is the natural process of evaporation from plant leaves. It produces cooling and air movement around the leaves of the plant. Photosynthesis is the manufacture of carbohydrate foods from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light. Transpiration is the natural process of evaporation from plant leaves. It produces cooling and air movement around the leaves of the plant. Photosynthesis is the manufacture of carbohydrate foods from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of light.

11. Project Findings - People People: Humans produce carbon dioxide, water vapor, and contaminants including particulate matter, biological aerosols, and VOC’s. Russian and American space scientists established that humans release as many as 150 VOC’s into the atmosphere, such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, methane, alcohols, phenols, methyl indole, aldehydes, ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, volatile fatty acids, indol, mercaptans and nitrogen oxides. Acetone, ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol and ethyl acetate are the principle substances emitted through normal biological processes. According to ASHRAE, comfort and odor, criteria with respect to human body affluence is usually satisfied when ventilation results in an indoor carbon dioxide concentration of less than 700 ppm above the outdoor air concentration

12. Project Findings – Swimming Pools Swimming Pools: When chlorine is added to water it forms hypochlorous acid (HClO), an excellent bactericide. In this solution it is known as "free chlorine," and is highly reactive. The pool water exists in perfect equilibrium when it is properly treated, and no chloramine gas enters the air. An imbalance occurs when people are added to the water. A chemical reaction occurs: chlorine mixes with human biological wastes creating chloramine (NH2Cl). Chloramine will release to the air and reach a balance in the room based on a chemical law known as the partial pressure law. In laymen’s terms, this law states how much chloramine remains in the water and how much is released to the air. Adding more chemicals to water increases the total contaminant level until the chemical reactions reach equilibrium. In high occupancy pools, water contaminant levels can double in a single day of operation. Even the perfect chlorine feed system will suffer imbalances because it takes time to mix the large volume of water, and people come and go throughout the course of the day. The dynamics of pool chemistry go much deeper, and won’t be covered in this report. However, an air quality control system must be in place to deal with temporary imbalances in water chemistry. hypochlorous acid - water is balanced – no gas is released to the air. H hydrogen Cl chlorine O oxygen N nitrogen hypochlorous acid - water is balanced – no gas is released to the air. H hydrogen Cl chlorine O oxygen N nitrogen

13. The MACC Annex - 1st run Average throw speed = 13.5 mph. Average return speed 3 mph. Average speed of air over pool is lest than 1 ft/min Temperature mid ceiling is 840F. CO2 in Supply air oscillated between 350 & 505 ppm. Dry bulb T in Supply air oscillated between 89F & 104F respectively. Relative Humidity in Supply air oscillated between 24 & 37% respectively. RH was 50% , and Temp was 87.5F at Return air duct. Average throw speed = 13.5 mph. Average return speed 3 mph. Average speed of air over pool is lest than 1 ft/min Temperature mid ceiling is 840F. CO2 in Supply air oscillated between 350 & 505 ppm. Dry bulb T in Supply air oscillated between 89F & 104F respectively. Relative Humidity in Supply air oscillated between 24 & 37% respectively. RH was 50% , and Temp was 87.5F at Return air duct.

14. The MACC Annex - 1st run

15. The MACC Annex - 1st run

16. The MACC Annex - 2nd run Average throw speed = 1305 ft/min. Average return speed 412 ft/min. Average speed of air over pool is 1-2 ft/min @ location 3. Temperature mid ceiling is 830F. CO2 in Supply air oscillated between 450 & 475 ppm. Dry bulb T in Supply air oscillated between 86F & 86.5F. Relative Humidity in Supply air oscillated between 36 & 35%. RH was 45% , and Temp was around 86F at Return air duct. Outdoor CO2 Readings: 430 ppm on steps 445 ppm in shade 425 ppm in grass Average throw speed = 1305 ft/min. Average return speed 412 ft/min. Average speed of air over pool is 1-2 ft/min @ location 3. Temperature mid ceiling is 830F. CO2 in Supply air oscillated between 450 & 475 ppm. Dry bulb T in Supply air oscillated between 86F & 86.5F. Relative Humidity in Supply air oscillated between 36 & 35%. RH was 45% , and Temp was around 86F at Return air duct. Outdoor CO2 Readings: 430 ppm on steps 445 ppm in shade 425 ppm in grass

17. The MACC Annex - 2nd run Resembles the warm dry climate Resembles the warm dry climate

18. The MACC Annex - 2nd run Outdoor CO2 Readings: 430 ppm on steps 445 ppm in shade 425 ppm in grass RH was 45% , and Temp was around 86F at Return air duct. Outdoor CO2 Readings: 430 ppm on steps 445 ppm in shade 425 ppm in grass RH was 45% , and Temp was around 86F at Return air duct.

19. The MACC Annex - 3rd run Average throw speed = 1383 ft/min. Average return speed 138 ft/min. Average speed of air over pool is 2.5-3 ft/min @ location 2. Average speed of air over pool is 115 ft/min @ ¼ point. Average speed of air over pool is 130 ft/min @ corner of pool. Temperature mid ceiling is 830F. Doorway: last page CO2 in Supply air oscillated between 320 & 432 ppm. Dry bulb T in Supply air oscillated between 95.5F & 101.5F respectively. Relative Humidity in Supply air oscillated between 14 & 12% respectively. RH was around 30% , and Temp was 88F at Return air duct. Outdoor CO2 Readings: 500 ppm @ front door of R&WC 480 ppm in a clear area Average throw speed = 1383 ft/min. Average return speed 138 ft/min. Average speed of air over pool is 2.5-3 ft/min @ location 2. Average speed of air over pool is 115 ft/min @ ¼ point. Average speed of air over pool is 130 ft/min @ corner of pool. Temperature mid ceiling is 830F. Doorway: last page CO2 in Supply air oscillated between 320 & 432 ppm. Dry bulb T in Supply air oscillated between 95.5F & 101.5F respectively. Relative Humidity in Supply air oscillated between 14 & 12% respectively. RH was around 30% , and Temp was 88F at Return air duct. Outdoor CO2 Readings: 500 ppm @ front door of R&WC 480 ppm in a clear area

20. The MACC Annex - 3rd run

21. The MACC Annex - 3rd run Door opening: Highest speed was 440 coming in at mid span. It was raining @ the inside wall.Door opening: Highest speed was 440 coming in at mid span. It was raining @ the inside wall.

22. The Recreation & Wellness Center – 1st run

23. The Recreation & Wellness Center – 1st run

24. The Recreation & Wellness Center – 1st run

25. The Recreation & Wellness Center – 2nd run

26. The Recreation & Wellness Center – 2nd run

27. The Recreation & Wellness Center – 1st run

28. Conclusion Testable Hypothesis The VOC level is too high for humans. Conclusion The VOC level in the swimming pool rooms are low enough to consider the IAQ as adequate. The VOC detector displayed one lit LED, indicating a zero to low quantity of VOC’s in each room.  

29. Remedies   Suggested improvements to the swimming pool room: New return air inlets pull in the air at the floor and water surface level. Some supply air should continue to be directed over the water surface to move contaminated air toward the return air ducts. Apply new finishes to the interior for easier clean up and maintenance of water salts.

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