Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne
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Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne. Personality Structure Each individual personality is divided into three separate and distinct sources of behaviour P Parent A Adult C Child ~. Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne.

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Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Personality Structure

Each individual personality is divided into three separate and distinct sources of behaviour

P Parent

A Adult

C Child

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

The PAC represent skeletal-muscular and verbal patterns of behaviour and feelings based on emotions and experiences perceived by people in their early years

Parent

Nurturing

Helping and supportive behaviour

Critical

Criticism, control and punishment

Contains instructions, attitudes and behaviours handed down by parents and significant authority figures

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Adult

Operates logically and non emotionally, problems solving, using information to make decisions without emotion.

Child

Adaptive child

Emerges as the result of demands of authority and is marked by passivity

Natural or Free ChildImpulsive, untrained, self loving, and pleasure seeking

The Child contributes joy, creativity, intuition, pleasure and enjoyment. ~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Structural Analysis

The identification of what element of the personality is responding to the situation and how appropriate that is.

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Personality Operation

Berne believed that people have the rationality and freedom to make decisions and solve their own problems

The well adjusted person allows the situation to determine which ego state is in control attempting to strike a balance between all three.

Transaction

A unit of human communication or a stimulus response connection between two people’s ego states.

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Transactional Analysis

Bill Tom

P P

A A

C C


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Types of Transactions

Complementary

“the natural order of healthy human relationships,” occurs when a response comes from the ego state to which it was addressed

Crossed

When a response comes from an ego state not addressed or not appropriate to the situation

CovertResponse which overtly appears to be directed at one ego state but covertly is addressed at another-sarcasm, teasing,


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Complementary

Crossed

Covert

P

P

A

A

C

C


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Script Analysis

A life script is that life plan the individual’s “child”selected early in their developmental years base mostly on the overt or covert messages or injunctions received from the “child” in your parents

Injunctions

Authoritative directives

Scripts are the characteristic way we structure our transactions

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Five Component Parts of Scripts

  • Directions from parents

  • 2. Patterned personality development

  • 3. A confirming childhood decision about identity

  • 4. A penchant or inclination for either success or failure

  • A pattern of behaviour

  • ~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Game Analysis

Game

An ongoing series of complementary ulterior transactions progressing to a well defined predictable outcome. – manipulation

Homeostasis

The tendency of an individual to maintain internal psychological equilibrium by regulating his or her own intrapsychic process – status quo –

Game playing functions to maintain homeostasis in biological, existential, internal psychological, external psychological, internal and external social areas

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Life Positions

I’m OK and you’re OK - healthy

I’m not OK and you’re OK - poor me, victim

I’m not OK and you’re not OK - pessimist

I’m OK and you’re not OK - its everyone's fault but me or antisocial personality

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Motivation

Pursuit of Strokes

Human beings need recognition, they engage in transactions to exchanges strokes

Positive Strokes

Compliments, open affection, uninterrupted listening, praise, positive reinforcement.

Positive strokes are usually complementary transactions

Negative Strokes

Disagreement, punishment, lack of attention, humiliation, embarrassment

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Motivation

Maintenance Strokes

Not positive or negative but keep communication open.

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Structuring Time

The manner in which we behave in order to receive strokes

Withdrawing

Behaviour is low risk because no transaction takes place however no strokes are received

Rituals

Prescribed social transactions – Hello – How are you etc

Relative risk – primarily maintenance strokes without commitment or involvement.

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Structuring Time – cont

Pastimes

Socially acceptable activities which allow transactions

Primarily maintenance strokes but may lead to positive or negative ones – way of sizing up before commitment

Activities

Time spent dealing with the realities of the worldschool, work, clubs,

Allow strokes in terms of achievement.

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Structuring Time – cont

Games

Attempts to gain strokes in a maladaptive way. Destructive transactions

Involves complementary ulterior transactions

Intimacy

A deep human encounter motivated by genuine caring

A structured time with no withdrawal, ritual, games, pastimes or activities

Involves greatest quality and quantity of positive strokes~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Dysfunctional Behaviour

Structural

Responds in ways not appropriate to the interaction or the situation

TransactionUses cross transaction or ulterior transaction with others

ScriptHas developed characteristic ways of interacting which leads to life problems

GamesConscious utilization of ulterior transactions

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Games Workers & Clients Play

1. “Yes but” – client has an excuse why any suggested strategy won’t work

2. “I’m only trying to help you, its for your own good”worker “its more important that I help you than you change appropriately

3. Courtroom – Worker as judge and jury

4. NIGYYSOB – Client manipulates worker into non therapeutic behaviour

5. Gossiping – talking about people who are not present

6. Wooden leg – clients use their situations to avoid responsibility

7. If it weren’t for you – client avoids responsibility by projecting it to you


Transactional analysis eric berne

Therapeutic Goals

The primary goal in TA is to help the person achieve the I’m OK you’re OK position

Behaviour Management

Use behaviour management techniques that help a person maintain healthy interactions.

Attempt to maintain a health transaction situation

Don’t use techniques that lead to games

Frustrate client’s attempt to gain strokes though game playing – be aware of your ego state in responding to the client

The appropriate technique will be dependent on the factors in the situation that you are in and your understanding of the client

~


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Programming Focus

Structure programming goals to teach the client appropriate ways to structure time for positive strokes

life skills, cooperative activities, social skills, communication skills

Counselling Techniques

Structural Analysis

Transactional Analysis

Script Analysis

Game Analysis

Help clients explore potential for behaviour or action using appropriate ego states


Transactional analysis eric berne

Transactional Analysis – Eric Berne

Terminology

Personality Structure

Structural Analysis

Transactional Analysis

Script Analysis

Game Analysis

Complementary Transaction

Crossed Transaction

Covert Transaction

~


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