Effect of Watershed (ACN) and Fertilizer Management on Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Mai...
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Effect of Watershed (ACN) and Fertilizer Management on Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia. RESEARCH TEAM. A.K. Jarju * , M. Faye, C. Bojang, M. Suso, Y. Sanneh, B. Jobe, A. Bittaye, F atajo

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Effect of Watershed (ACN) and Fertilizer Management on Soil Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.


RESEARCH TEAM Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

A.K. Jarju*, M. Faye, C. Bojang, M. Suso, Y. Sanneh, B. Jobe, A. Bittaye,

F atajo

National Agriculture Research Institute (NARI), PMB 526, Serekunda, The Gambia

and

C. Yamoah, R. Kablan, R. S.Yost*

SM-CRSP Carbon Project, University of Hawaii Department of Plant and Soil Science, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA


Introduction
Introduction Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

A watershed management experiment was initiated in the Gambia from 2002 to 2006 to test the hypothesis that ridge tillage retains rainfall and interacts with fertilizer to produce greater maize grain and biomass yields than conventional watershed management.


Objective
Objective Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

To evaluate existing and improved cropping systems for increased Carbon storage as soil Carbon and sustainable increased crop production.


Methodology
Methodology Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

A split plot design with three replications was used for the experiment. The main plots were ridge-tillage and conventional tillage watershed management. Subplots were four fertilizer rates


Methodology1
Methodology Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Treatments:

Main plots

  • 1.      Ridge-tillage

  • 2. Conventional tillage


Methodology2
Methodology Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Sub-plots

  • 1.      check with no fertilizer

  • 2.     200 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer + 16 kg ha-1 of urea (approximately half the national recommended rate)

  • 3.     200 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer + 43 kg ha-1 of urea (full the national recommended rate)

  • 4.     200 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer + 150 kg ha-1 of urea (double the national recommended rate.)


Acn field layout
ACN Field layout Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Ridge tillage Conv. Tillage

F1


Determination of soil carbon
Determination of soil carbon Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

The widely recognized method to estimate soil carbon in cropping systems for assessment of carbon sequestration is the dry-combustion procedure (SM-CRSP, 2002).


Determination of soil carbon1
Determination of soil carbon Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

For the Gambian upland soils, 5g-soil is pre-dried to 105 C and later to 360 C. The product of percent LOI at 360 C and 0.717 give %OM.

Conversion of %OM to %OC is %OM/1.724 or simply 2.


Fertilizer Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Tillage systems

2005

2006

RT*

CT

RT

CT

(kg ha-1)

(Yield kg ha-1)

Check (no fertilizer)

431

530

632

586

200 NPK + 42 urea

1153

1052

2422

2134

200 NPK + 86 urea

1136

941

2226

1702

200 NPK + 258 urea

1105

1193

2134

1842

Analysis of variance

Source

F-value

P-value

F-value

P-value

Tillage system (T)

0.150

>0.05

31.29

0.030

Fertilizer (F)

51.70

<0.001

280.867

<0.001

T*F

2.80

<0.05

6.588

0.007

Effects of ridge tillage, conventional tillage systems, and fertilizer on maize yields (kg ha-1),Two year pull 2005 and 2006 in Western Gambia.


Fertilizer Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Tillage systems

2005

2005

RT*

CT

RT

CT

(kg ha-1)

Total soil carbon (t/ha)

(%Carbon)

Check (no fertilizer)

8.73

7.91

0.72

0.63

200 NPK + 42 urea

8.90

7.83

1.26

0.95

200 NPK + 86 urea

9.96

7.70

1.12

1.02

200 NPK + 258 urea

10.05

8.61

1.10

0.98

Analysis of variance

Source

F-value

P-value

F-value

P-value

Tillage system (T)

4.44

>0.05

43.52

0.022

Fertilizer (F)

3.34

<0.05

54.49

<0.001

T*F

1.4

>0.05

7.47

0.004

Effects of ridge tillage, conventional tillage systems, and fertilizer on total soil carbon (t/ha) in 2005 and % carbon (%) in 2005, Western Gambia.


Descriptive statistics of soil carbon in ridge and conventional tillage systems 2005

Statistic Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Ridge-tillage

Conventional tillage

Mean

0.87

0.73

Median

0.90

0.79

Standard deviation

0.17

0.11

Minimum

0.57

0.53

Maximum

1.09

0.88

Range

0.52

0.35

CV (%)

19.2

15.0

Descriptive statistics of soil carbon in ridge and conventional tillage systems, 2005.


Fertilizer Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Tillage systems

2005

2006

RT*

CT

RT

CT

(kg ha-1)

(Dalasis ha-1)

Check (no fertilizer)

2115

2600

2728

2508

200 NPK + 42 urea

3680

3000

9820

7312

200 NPK + 86 urea

3420

2540

7520

5234

200 NPK + 258 urea

2814

2500

5922

4646

Statistics

Mean

2814

2638

6457

4925

Standard deviation

858

250

2979

1925

CV

0.31

0.09

0.458

0.401

Paired t-test

P>0.05

P<0.057

Returns over variable cost of fertilizer on maize in ridge and conventional tillage systems in Western Gambia 2005 and 2006.


Plans for 2007
Plans for 2007 Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Work with both the national extension staff and international NGOs to train farmers in the installation of the ADOs and to intensify the replicate ACN on farm program and farmer-to-farmer field visits.


Hypothesis
Hypothesis Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.


Scaling up realized benefits of acn on farmers field
Scaling up realized benefits of ACN on farmers field Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Replicated on farm ACN technology 2007/2008

Determination post rain vegetable production in ACN water shed sites in western and north bank region 2008 and beyond


Conventional Tillage Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

Road beranch toward Kerr cherino

Conventional Tillage

Road to Kerr Cherino

Ridge ttillage

Fass Chaw Village

Mosque

Road from Madina sering Mass

Road in middle of the Village


The basket gambia experience
The basket - Gambia experience Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.

FARMER INNOVATION AND ACN

CROSS BOARDER FACTOR

FIVE YEARS OF EXPERIMENTATION AND CROP RESIDUE MANAGEMENT IMPACT ON CROP YIELD FERTILIZER FREE PLOTS


F1 21 days after planting 2003
F1: 21 days after planting 2003 Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.


F1 21 days after planting 2005
F1: 21 days after planting 2005 Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.


F1 21 days after planting 2006
F1: 21 days after planting 2006 Organic Carbon (SOC) Conservation in Maize-based cropping systems in The Gambia.



Reflections
Reflections no ridging” in ACN



Thank you community level


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