Measuring GHG Emissions
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Measuring GHG Emissions Energizing Cleaner Production Management Course. Session Agenda:. GHG types and sources GHG Indicator to calculate emissions GHG accounting and reporting. But first… In what step(s) of the methodology is (energy and) GHG measurement relevant?.

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Measuring GHG Emissions

Energizing Cleaner Production

Management Course


Session Agenda:

GHG types and sources

GHG Indicator to calculate emissions

GHG accounting and reporting


But first…

In what step(s) of the methodology is (energy and) GHG measurement relevant?


Ghg types and sources greenhouse gases
GHG types and sources:Greenhouse Gases


Ghg types and sources ghg sources
GHG types and sources:GHG sources

  • Industrial sources

    • Fuel use

    • Electricity use

    • Industrial processes

    • Transport

  • Non-industry and natural sources

    • Volcanoes

    • Cattle

    • Forest fires

    • Others



Ghg indicator
GHG Indicator

  • Based on UNEP/IPCC methodology for GHG emission calculations

  • Provides common method for reporting GHG emissions

  • Used by organizations to calculate GHG emissions from energy use and other sources

  • Used by Governments to translate national GHG targets (e.g. Kyoto Protocol) to industrial targets


Ghg indicator methodology
GHG Indicator:Methodology

Raw data

Conversion

Aggregation

Normalisation

1. Fuel use

2. Electricity use

Total

GHG

emissions

Normalised GHG emissions

GHG emission factor

3. Industrial processes

4. Transport


Ghg indicator 1 fuel use
GHG Indicator:1. Fuel Use


Ghg indicator 2 electricity use
GHG Indicator:2. Electricity Use

Exported electricity is not included in the total


Ghg indicator 3 industrial processes
GHG Indicator:3. Industrial Processes

CO2 is released when lime is burned


Ghg indicator 4 transport
GHG Indicator:4. Transport


Ghg indicator aggregation
GHG Indicator:Aggregation


Ghg indicator normalisation
GHG Indicator:Normalisation


Ghg indicator reporting

2.9%

43.8%

GHG Indicator:Reporting


Ghg indicator ghg indicators by sector
GHG Indicator:GHG Indicators by sector


Ghg indicator quiz
GHG Indicator Quiz

Let’s test what you have learnt!


Ghg accounting and reporting
GHG Accounting and Reporting

Reasons for GHG accounting and reporting

  • Internal reporting to measure progress against targets & identify EE opportunities

  • Legal requirement to report

  • Voluntary reporting under programs

  • Public environmental / CSR reports

  • Emissions trading schemes

  • CDM or JI

  • Other…


Ghg accounting and reporting1
GHG Accounting and Reporting

The GHG Protocol lists 5 accounting & reporting principles:

  • Relevance

  • Completeness

  • Consistency

  • Transparency

  • Accuracy


Ghg accounting and reporting relevance
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Relevance

Define boundaries:

  • Organizational structures

  • Operational boundaries

  • Business context

  • Specific inclusions / exclusions

A multinational operates a plant but owns only 60% of shares

Do you count 100% or 60% of emissions?


Ghg accounting and reporting completeness
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Completeness

Include all GHG sources & activities

  • Fuel use

  • Electricity use

  • Industrial processes

  • Transport

Sometimes companies do not include all emission sources / activities

Can you think of reasons why?


Ghg accounting and reporting completeness cont
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Completeness (cont.)

  • #

Direct and Indirect Emissions of a Company

Source: GHG Protocol, www.ghgprotocol.org, adapted from NZBSCD


Ghg accounting and reporting consistency
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Consistency

Meaningful comparison of emissions over time

  • Production changes

  • Process changes

  • Acquisitions, mergers, sales

  • Outsourcing

Why is it important that GHG emissions be compared between different years?


Ghg accounting and reporting transparency
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Transparency

It is clear how emissions were calculated (“audit trail”)

  • Measurements

  • Assumptions

  • Calculation methods

  • References

  • Exclusions or inclusions

Who makes use of the “audit trail” of data?


Ghg accounting and reporting transparency cont
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Transparency (cont.)

  • Independent External Auditors

  • Review of inventory

  • Provide assurance on data quality & accuracy

  • Corporate Team

  • Check quality of incoming data

  • Compile data

  • Analyze emission inventory and forecast against BP’s GHG target

  • 320 Reporting Units:

  • Complete standard pro-forma spreadsheet every quarter: emissions & forecasts

  • Account for variances

  • Use BP’s GHG Reporting Guidelines


Ghg accounting and reporting accuracy
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Accuracy

Data must be “materially” accurate

  • Measurement methods

  • Calculation methods

  • Aggregation and reporting

What can a company do to improve data accuracy?


Ghg accounting and reporting reporting emissions
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Reporting Emissions

Minimum information to be reported

  • Company and inventory boundary

    • Organizational boundaries

    • Operational boundaries

    • Reporting period


Ghg accounting and reporting reporting emissions cont
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Reporting Emissions (cont.)

Minimum information to be reported

  • Information on emissions

    • Direct (scope 1) and indirect (scope 2) emissions – total and separate

    • Emissions for 6 GHGs

    • Current and base year emissions

    • Significant changes since base year

    • Direct CO2 emissions from biologically sequestered carbon

    • Methodologies for calculation/ measurement

    • Specific exclusions


Ghg accounting and reporting verification of ghg emissions
GHG Accounting and Reporting:Verification of GHG Emissions

  • Verification is objective assessment of

    • Accuracy and completeness of GHG information

    • Conformity to GHG accounting and reporting principles

  • Why verification?

    • Increased credibility of reported emissions

    • Increased senior management confidence

    • Improved accounting & reporting

    • Preparation for mandatory verification requirements


Summary
Summary

  • GHG emission accounting and reporting increasingly important

  • GHG Indicator useful tool to calculate GHG emissions

  • Don’t assume data company gives you are accurate and complete!! (think of the 5 principles)

  • Verification improves the credibility / reliability of GHG data


Measuring GHG Emissions

Thank you for your attention!


Acknowledgements

  • This training session was prepared as part of the development and delivery of the course “Energizing Cleaner Production” funded by InWent, Internationale Weiterbildung und Entwicklung (Capacity Building International, Germany)and carried out by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)

  • The session is based on UNEP’s “The GHG Indicator” (www.uneptie.org/energy/tools/ghgin/index.htm) and the WBCSD/WRI’s “The GHG Protocol - A Corporate Accounting and Reporting Standard, revised edition” (www.ghgprotocol.org)


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