Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement
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Workshop on E-waste Recycling and Refurbishing: Environmentally Sound Management Practices February 15, 2011. Human health and environmental impact of e-waste mismanagement. Arturo Gavilán García National Institute of Ecology, SEMARNAT. Guadalajara, Mexico February 15–16.

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Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement

Workshop on E-waste Recycling and Refurbishing: Environmentally Sound Management Practices

February 15, 2011

Human health and environmental impact of e-waste mismanagement

Arturo Gavilán García

National Institute of Ecology, SEMARNAT

Guadalajara, MexicoFebruary 15–16


Purpose of presentation

Purpose of presentation

  • To present the potentially toxic content of electronic products

  • To discuss the potential environmental impacts of the improper management of electronic waste

  • To describe ongoing studies in Mexico


Overview

Overview

  • Issues

  • Effects on the environment

  • Studies conducted in Mexico


Issues

Issues

  • Growing use of electrical and electronic devices around the world (Widmer, 2005).

  • Lack of specific standards  inadequate disposal (Widmer, 2005).

  • Varying metals content: mercury, lead, cadmium, beryllium, chromium, barium and polybrominated flame retardants: PBDE, TBBPA (SEMARNAT, 2003; Weiyue et al, 2007).

  • Around 500 million PCs reached the end of their usefful lives between 1994 and 2003 (2,872,000 tons of plastic, 718,000 tons of Pb, 1,363 tons of Cd and 287 tons of Hg) (Puckett & Smith, 2002).

  • Mexico spends more than US$1600 per capita each year (World Bank, 2004).


Issues1

Issues

  • Waste sent to developing countries for treatment and disposal (Summers, 1991; Sinha-Khetriwal, 2005).

  • Interest in valuable materials such as gold, silver and copper in formal and informal activities (EU, 2002b).

  • High levels of PBDE, D/F and HPA reported in air, water, soil and sediment, as well as in blood and breast milk of residents in places where craft recyclers are located (100 times above normal), and higher levels in occupational environmental (Wong et al., 2006; Yu, 2006; Weiyue et al., 2007).


Issues2

Issues

Components with high levels of lead or mercury

Wires (plastic & copper)

IBM 5150 (1987)

Flame Retardants

Flame Retardants

Reusable components

Baterías

Cr

Pb

Plastics (mixtures of HIP, PVC & ABS)

Printed circuit cards (precious metals, copper & other minerals)

Large metal pieces (aluminum & iron)

Cd

Hg

Pt


Effects on the environment

Acute poisoning

nausea, vomiting,

diarrhea,

abdominal pain,

tachycardia,

arrhythmia,

tremors,

,

convulsions, coma,

cardio-respiratory failure,

death

changes, demyelinization of axons, psychomotor, sensorial and

cognitive loss,

,

behavioral and personality changes

Effects on the environment

TOXIC EFFECTS

Pb

As

Hg

Cd

Cr

r

r

r

Neurological changesbiochemical, chemical and histological

r

r

r

Respiratory tract damage

bronchitis, pneumonitis,

r

r

r

edema and pulmonary obstruction, septum perforation

Cardiovascular disorders hypertension,

black foot disease

r

r

r

)

r

r

r

r

Hematological changes

hemorrhage, anemia, leukopenia

r

r

r

Ulcerationof skin and mucous membranes

r

r

r

Liver damage

Kidney damage

r

r

r

r

r

r

Osteoporosisand bone deformation

r

Reproductive effects

r

r

Teratogenic effects

r

r

r

r

Genotoxic effects

r

r

r

Cancer (

skin, lung, etc.


Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement

Effects on the environment

Ecotoxicological effects

  • Lethal effects (DL50) in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, birds and mammals

  • Sublethal effects (in laboratory):

    • biochemical changes (protein synthesis)

    • physiological changes (growth & reproduction)

    • morphological changes (malformations)

    • behavioral changes


Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement

Effectsontheenvironment

Ecotoxicologicaleffects

  • Effects on microorganisms(bacteria, fungi, protozoa)

    • reduced degradation of organic matter

    • reduced nitrification processes

    • altered recycling of nutrients

  • Effects on algae and plants

    • inhibited germination and growth

    • decreased rate of photosynthesis (biomass)

    • interference in nutrient absorption

    • chlorosis

  • Effects on communities

    • changes in the structure, abundance and diversity of species


Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement

Effectsontheenvironment

  • Polybrominated flame retardants

    • Brominated organic compounds used in plastics, textiles, building materials and electrical circuits to prevent fires.

  • Such as:

  • a) Polybrominated biphenyl ethers, b) Hexabromocyclododecane,

  • c) Tetrabromobisphenol, and d) Polybrominated biphenyls


Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement

Polychlorinated biphenyls

  • Effects on:

    • Immune system

    • Neurological system

    • Development

    • Reproductive system

    • Genotoxic


Human health and environmental impact of e waste mismanagement

PBDEs

  • High levels found in food chain

  • Environmental process begins with transportation by air, soil and water, due to mismanagement

  • Not easily degraded in the environment and may remain for a long time

  • Strongly bound to soil and sediment


Studies conducted in mexico

Studies conducted in Mexico

  • Border Diagnostic (2009)

    • (CIIEMAD, IPN)

  • Northeast Regional Diagnostic (2007)

    • (ITESM)

  • NationalDiagnostic (2006)

    • (CIIEMAD, IPN)

  • Mexico City

  • Metropolitan Area

  • Diagnostic (2010)

    • (CIIEMAD, IPN)


Studies conducted in mexico1

Studies conducted in Mexico

  • PBDEs (2007)

  • Analysis of children in San Luis Potosí, Chihuahua and Mexico State

  • PBDEs (2009)

  • National Diagnostic

  • Analysis of plastics and polymers

  • PBDEs (2010)

  • Analysis of landfills

  • Analysis of children in San Luis Potosí, Chihuahua and Mexico State


Thank you agavilan@ine gob mx

Thank [email protected]


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