Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability
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NC Early Grade Retention in the Age of Accountability. Sharon Palsha, Ph.D UNC-CH School of Education/FPG Fellow Kindergarten Readiness Issues Group Partners in Research Forum. Mary Bushnell, NC Child Care Resource & Referral Network Dick Clifford, FPG Diane Early, FPG

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NC Early Grade Retention in the Age of Accountability

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Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

NC Early Grade Retention in the Age of Accountability

Sharon Palsha, Ph.D

UNC-CH School of Education/FPG Fellow

Kindergarten Readiness Issues Group

Partners in Research Forum


Kindergarten readiness issues group partners in research forum

Mary Bushnell, NC Child Care Resource & Referral Network

Dick Clifford, FPG

Diane Early, FPG

Engin Konanc, NC Department of Public Instruction

Kelly Maxwell, FPG

Sharon Palsha, FPG & UNC School of Education

Lucy Roberts, NC Department of Public Instruction

Kindergarten Readiness Issues Group Partners in Research Forum


Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

NC K-3 Retention Rates*


Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

% Retained in NC by Grade

1991-92 vs. 2001-02


Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

% Retained in NC by Ethnicity and Gender (K-3)


Average expenditures per child in 2001 02

Average Expenditures per Child in 2001-02*

*Per pupil capital expense, 5-year average


Retention costs in north carolina for 2001 2002

Retention Costs in North Carolina for 2001-2002


Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

% Retained in NC by Grade

2001-02 vs 2005-06


Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

% Retained in NC by Grade

1991-92 vs. 2001-02


Retention costs in north carolina for 2005 2006

Retention Costs in North Carolina for 2005-2006


What does research say about retention in the early grades

“If ever a school practice not only ignored research, but operated in opposition to it, retention is that practice.”(NEA Today)

What does research say about retention in the early grades?


What does research say about retention in the early grades1

Retention in early grades is harmful, especially before 2nd grade (Alexender, Entwisle, and Dauber, 2003; Shepard and Smith, 1987, 1989)

Much of research across all grades suggests that retention is not helpful (Holmes, 1989)

Retention is associated with school dropout (NC Education Research Council, 1999)

What does research say about retention in the early grades?


Dropout events

2005- 06 - 9th -12th Grade -

2006-07 - 9th- 12th Grade -

Dropout Events


Dropout events1

2005- 06 - 9th -12th Grade - 22,180

2006-07 - 9th- 12th Grade - 23, 550

5.24 % increase from previous year

Dropout Events


Nc early grade retention in the age of accountability

NC K-3 Retention Rates*


Alternatives to retention

Interventions start early

Interventions occur in the context of the regular classroom setting

Coordination is key

Parents are involved

Afterschool support is offered

Enriched summer experiences are offered

Alternatives to retention


Alternatives to retention continued

Literacy is emphasized

Professional development is critical

Connections are made with community resources

Staff have a “CAN DO” attitude - do everything possible to have every child succeed

Alternatives to retention continued


Cristina s story

Cristina’s Story


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