Global History Review. 9 th Grade. Intro to Geography. Geographic Features. Geographic Features. Fields of Study in Global History. Archeologist - F Anthropologist - C Sociologist - E Economist - D Geographer - A Historians - B Political Scientist - G. Culture.
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Global History Review
Archeologist - F
Anthropologist - C
Sociologist - E
Economist - D
Geographer - A
Historians - B
Political Scientist - G
Culture: The shared beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people.
Cultural diffusion: The spreading of ideas through contact from one people to another.
Characteristics of Culture: Cities, Organized Government, Religion, Job Specialization, Social Classes, Writing, Art/Architecture, Public Works
In what ways can cultural diffusion occur: Trade or war.
Monotheism- belief in one God
Polytheism- belief in many gods
Pharaoh: an Egyptian god-king
Ziggurat: a religious temple in Mesopotamia
Hammurabi’s Code: codified system of laws, “eye for an eye”
Mandate of Heaven: the divine right to rule that comes from God
Civil Service Exam: a test that is taken by a person in order to get a government job
Controlled food supply; cultivation of edible plants; breeding of animals; became farmers and herdsmen
Location of river valleys
Old dynasty loses Mandate of Heaven; taxing people too much; stops protecting people; infrastructure decays; treats people unfairly
Brings peace; rebuilds infrastructure; gives land to peasants; protects people
Pioneered use of herbs to treat illness; set bones; plastic surgery
Vaccination of smallpox.
The Greeks developed many individual city-states because geography (mountains/waterways) isolated them from one another.
The two most important city-states were Athens (golden-age) and Sparta (militaristic).
One of the most important achievements of the Greeks is in the area of government. They developed a form of democracy.
Alexander the Great spread a form of culture known as Hellenistic Culture.
Famous philosophers include Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle.
Golden Age: a period of peace and prosperity
Polis: another name for a Greek city-state
Socratic Method: asking questions to develop an answer
Hellenistic Culture: blending of Greek, Persian, Egyptian, and Indian culture
Direct Democracy: each citizen take part in the day-to-day running of the government
Government favors the many instead of the few; advancement is open to everyone according to ability; every citizen has equal opportunity to serve the public; do not discriminate against the poor.
Student answers may vary.
Rome lasted from 509 B.C. until 476 A.D. and its history is divided into two periods, Roman Republic and Empire.
The Roman Republic was ruled by Consuls, patricians (senators), and plebeians.
The Roman Empire begins when Julius Caesar becomes dictator.
The Romans experienced a golden age during the Pax Romana in which they made many advancements. Their most important achievement was in the area of law. They developed the Laws of the Twelve Tables.
During the Pax Romana the Romans made advancements in art, architecture, and engineering. They built roads, aqueducts, and the Coliseum.
The collapse of the Roman Empire was not caused by a single event but rather a series of gradual events that took place over an extended period of time.
Pax Romana: 200 years of Roman peace and prosperity.
Republic: political system where officials are chosen by the people
Senate: an elected body
Patricians: upper class citizens, land owners
Plebeians: lower class citizens: farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
Laws of the Twelve Tables: laws that were written down for all to follow.
People of same status equal before the law; accused is innocent until proven guilty; accused allowed to face accuser and defend against the charge; guilt must be established
Executives elected to terms; legislative branch each has a Senate; both have a Judicial branch; both have codified (written) laws; both have 3 branches of government
The Byzantine Empire preserved the contributions of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome for Western civilization (architecture, art, law).
The Byzantine Empire was originally the Eastern portion of the Roman Empire. Constantinople became its capital and it thrived because of its location on major trade routes between Europe and Asia.
Emperor Justinian developed a set of laws that became known as Justinian’s Code. It was a revision of the old Roman law system.
Hagia Sophia was a Christianchurch built in Constantinople by Justinian. Is is still standing today but is a Muslim mosque.
The Byzantine Empire influenced Russia through cultural cultural diffusion. This included the Eastern Orthodox Church, Cyrillic Alphabet, autocratic ruler, and art and architecture.
The empire lasted until 1453 when they were conquered by the Ottoman Turks (Muslims).
Justinian’s Code: a set of laws developed by Justinian that included many Roman laws
Autocratic Ruler: a single ruler with complete authority
Cyrillic Alphabet: an alphabet developed by Eastern Orthodox monks used in Russia
The Islamic Empire preserved Greek/Roman culture, made many achievements in the areas of math, science, medicine, architecture, literature, art, and they developed a prosperous economy.
Some achievements of the Islamic Empire were calligraphy, study of algebra, astronomy, and medicine. These achievements eventually spread to Europe.
African trading kingdoms developed in East and West Africa. They developed along trade routes. They made their money from the gold-salt trade.
The main trading kingdoms in Africa were Mali, Ghana, and Songhai on the west coast while Nubia, Axum, and Kush were located on the east coast.
Mansa Musa was a famous ruler of the kingdom of Mali. His greatest contribution is that he took a pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca showing the importance of Islam while spreading culture.
Hajj: a religious trip to Mecca
Calligraphy: artistic writing
Gold-Salt Trade: the trade in gold and salt across northern Africa
Bantu Migration: the Bantu migrated throughout Africa. It is one of the largest migrations in human history. This migration began in about 1000AD – 1800AD
Islamic Empire 750AD
African Trading Kingdoms
After the fall of the Roman Empire, Europe was chaotic and lacked a central government. As a result, feudalism developed because people needed protection.
Society was organized into a social structure. In this system lords gave lands to vassals/knights who in turn offered their service as soldiers in the lord’s military (land is exchanged for food and protection). Peasants and serfs were on the bottom of the social structure and worked the land.
Manorialism is the economic system present during the Middle Ages. It was a self-sufficient community.
The only stabilizing force during the Middle Ages was the Catholic Church.
The Crusades were an attempt by the European Christians to re-conquer the Holy Land from the Jews and Muslims. The impact of the Crusades was that it increased trade with the Middle East, cities and towns grew, cultural diffusion, kings become more powerful and the church loses power.
The plague killed millions of people throughout Europe and Asia. As a result the value of the individual ________________ and the church lost even more power.
Feudalism: land is exchanged for loyalty and military service
Manorialism: economic system present during the Middle Ages; self-sufficient
Chivalry: code of conduct that knights lived by
Holy Land: land considered religiously significant to the Jews, Christians, and Muslims (Jerusalem)
International trade served wealthy; carried on by Greeks, Jews, Muslims; local exchange was done by barter; ruled out need for gold coinage; Carolingians minted only silver coins; gold coins from Byzantine and Muslim empires used.
Not favorable to development of agriculture and commerce; self-sufficient; closed economy; lived in fear of world beyond manor; hoped to endure.
Religious motives; ashamed to fight amongst themselves; land-hunger; general restlessness and taste for adventure; combining Christian duty with acquisition of land in southern climate.
Carried by fleas on black rats from the East
Like Europe in the Middle Ages, Japan was organized into a feudal society based on land holding. Samurai (like knights) were the warrior class and they followed the bushido code which is similar to chivalry.
Japanese society was led by an emperor (figurehead). The real power was in the hands of the Shogun who controlled his Daimyo (lords). The Samurai were the warrior class with peasants, merchants, and artisans near the bottom.
The Mongols, led by Genghis and Kublai Khan controlled a large empire in the Eurasian Steppe. Their strict rule allowed for cultural diffusion and safe trade along the Silk Road. They also influenced early Russia be demonstrating absolute government.
Marco Polo is know for his travels throughout Mongol lands. His his journals are primary sources still used today for information pertaining to the Mongols. Ibn Battuta is also known for his travels throughout Asia.
The Tang and the Song Dynasties were Golden Ages in China.
Pax Mongolia: a period of peace and prosperity for the Mongols.
Primary Source: a firsthand account of an event.
Steppe: grasslands with rolling hills.
Bushido Code: code of conduct that samurai follow.
Golden Age: period of peace and prosperity; the period when a specified art, skill, or activity is at its peak
Czar/Tsar: Russian absolute ruler
The Renaissance was a rebirth of classical Greek and Roman culture. It started in Italy during the 1300’s. The cities of Italy had great wealth from trade and manufacturing. As a result they spent their wealth on the arts and education.
Humanism is the emphasis on the achievement of the individual instead of religious issues.
During this period a questioning spirit emerged where people began to test traditional beliefs, mainly the Catholic Church.
Famous Renaissance painters include Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.
Literary achievements include the works of Dante, Cervantes, Shakespeare, and Machiavelli.
Golden Age: period of peace and prosperity; the period when a specified art, skill, or activity is at its peak
Patron: a person that supports the arts
Perspective: painting that suggests depth or distance
Leonardo da Vinci: Mona Lisa, The Last Supper
Michelangelo: Sistine Chapel, David, Pieta
Raphael: The School of Athens
Machiavelli: The Prince
Shakespeare: Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet
Cervantes: Don Quixote
Dante: Divine Comedy
Praised man himself as creator; played down sinfulness and emphasized ability to think and act for self, produce works of art, and guide destiny of others; allowed to roam at will; seen as the ruler of nature; heightened awareness of self; intrigued with exploring their own personalities.
Studied the anatomy of human body; dissected and studied human corpses; interested in the structure and function of various parts of human body; his drawings reflect what he learned.
The Protestant Reformation was a major turning point in history. It was a call by Martin Luther to reform the practices of the Catholic Church.
Martin Luther was upset with Church corruption, including the practice of selling indulgences, and he nailed the 95 Theses to a church in Wittenberg, Germany. The Church wanted him to recant his ideas and he refused. He was excommunicated.
Luther’s ideas spread rapidly by the invention of the moveable type printing press. Johan Gutenberg is credited with developing moveable type.
As a result of the Protestant Reformation, there was no longer religious unity in Europe. The Catholic Church lost some of its power giving more power to monarchs.
John Calvin was another reformation leader. He believed in predestination.
The Counter or Catholic Reformation was the Church response to Luther. During this period the ended corruption and returned to traditional teachings. These reforms were made at the Council of Trent in 1545.
Ignatius of Loyola started the Jesuits who emphasized spiritual and moral discipline and strict loyalty to the Catholic Church.
Indulgences: letters that could be purchased to have sins forgiven
95 Theses: Martin Luther’s 95 issues with the Catholic Church
Excommunicate: to be banned from the Catholic Church
Predestination: belief that certain people were chosen by God for Heaven; the divine foreordaining of all that will happen
Martin Luther was a German monk who started the Protestant Reformation. He posted his ninety-five theses on the church door because he was upset about the practice of the selling of indulgences. His action was a turning point in history because it increased the power of the monarchs in Europe and weakened the authority of the Catholic Church.
Written on scrolls; bound at one edge; by monks who worked with pen and ink in a copying room.
An estimated ½ million books in circulation by 1500; acceleration of the Renaissance; Protestant movement, political and industrial revolutions; Guttenberg was bankrupted.
The Maya, Aztec, And Inca civilizations were located in Central and South America. They are considered to be pre-Columbian civilizations.
The Aztec and the Inca civilizations were defeated by the conquistadors. Although the civilizations were advanced, their lack of military technology led to their defeat by the Europeans.
Conquistadors: Spanish conquerors; ex: Cortez
Chinampas: floating gardens
Quipas: knotted strings used for record keeping
Terrace farming: building steps in the side of a mountain or hill for farming
Acknowledge the Christian church as the ruler and superior of the whole world; agree to let the Christian priests preach to you.
Spanish will forcefully enter into the country and make war against the natives; Spanish will take the wives and children and make slaves of them.
Overturned the idols and rolled them down the stairs; had the places cleaned of the blood; set up Christian images.
In the 1400’s Europeans began exploring the world as a result of the invention of the astrolabe and the caravel as well as improved mapmaking skills by cartographers.
European’s began dominating the peoples of Africa, Asia, and the Americas. This is known as imperialism. The reason they dominated these countries was for God, golf, and glory.
Some key explorers include: Prince Henry the Navigator, Ferdinand Magellan, Vasco da Gama, and Christopher Columbus.
Mercantilism is the policy of a country to export (sell) more than they import (buy) to build wealth.
The social structure of the Spanish controlled regions of Latin America included Peninsulares, Creoles, Mestizos, Mulattoes, and the Native Americans/slaves.
A slave trade developed that included finished goods from Europe going to Africa. Slaves were traded from Africa to the Americas and raw materials being traded from the new world to Europe. This was known Triangular Trade.
As a result of the Age of Exploration, goods, ideas, customs, and technologies were exchanged between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres for the first time. This is known as the Columbian Exchange
Astrolabe: magnetic compass used to determine direction
Caravel: a small, fast Spanish or Portuguese sailing ship of the 15th–17th centuries
Cartographers: map maker
Imperialism: the domination by one country of the political, economic, and social life of another country
Middle Passage: the voyage from Africa to the Americas across the Atlantic Ocean (piece of Triangular Trade) on a slave ship
Encomienda System: wealthy Spanish were given land and natives/slaves were forced to work on the large plantations
Peninsulares: in colonial Latin America, Spanish officials sent to govern Latin American colonies. They controlled the government completely. They were born in Spain.
Creoles: American born Spanish gentry. They owned most of the land, but were treated like second class citizens and were denied political rights.
Mestizos: Spanish/Native American who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
Mulattoes: Spanish/African who were denied basic political, economic, and social rights due to their mixed heritage.
Native Americas/Slaves: person’s living in the country prior to the Europeans and those who were brought to the colonies from Africa.
Las Casas was determined to relieve Indians of the onerous burden of slavery; West Indian plantations grew in size and importance; slave trade was profitable
Disrupted social and political life in Africa and opened the door for European colonization; demand for slaves changed the relationship among African groups and states; more profitable to take captives than selling other goods; encouraged strong states to raid weaker states for slaves; many African societies were torn apart by organized slave wars; slave-raiding formed new states that were dominated by military groups that were constantly at war with neighbors
After the Renaissance monarchs began to increase their power as the Roman Catholic Church lost some of its power. These monarchs became known as absolute monarchs.
These monarchs believed their right to rule came from God. This is known as divine-right.
Absolutism in Russia saw Peter the Great bring westernization and Catherine the Great met their need for a warm-water port.
Absolutism in France saw Louis XIV (the Sun-King) spend France into bankruptcy eventually leading to the French Revolution.
In England, the Puritan Revolution/English Civil War led to Oliver Cromwell and Parliament taking control. This was a step in English democracy with the Magna Carta in 1215.
Absolutism: autocratic ruler who has complete authority over the government and the lives of their people
Magna Carta: a charter signed by King John of England (1215) that granted nobles certain rights and rejected the king’s powers
Limited Monarchy: a government in which a legislative body limits the power of the monarch
English Bill of Rights: set of laws passed by Parliament to ensure its superiority over the monarch; ex. Prevented the monarch from levying taxes without the consent of Parliament
Glorious Revolution: nonviolent revolution (1688) in which leaders of Britain’s Parliament invited William and Mary to replace King James II; limited the power of future monarchs
Westernization: the adoption of the culture and ideas of Western society, namely Europe and America
Cutting the nobles beards
Military reform left a distinct and deep impression on the social and intellectual composition of all Russian society…and even influenced future political developments.
The position of the nobility which had been dominant in the old army was completely changed.