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English (BA 503). Week 3 Sentence Study. Sentence Formation Subject Object/ Complement Modifiers Types of Sentences Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence. Objectives. The students are expected to be able to identify word functions in a sentence;

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English (BA 503)

Week 3

Sentence Study


  • Sentence Formation

  • Subject

  • Object/ Complement

  • Modifiers

  • Types of Sentences

  • Simple Sentence

  • Compound Sentence

  • Complex Sentence



The students are expected to be able to

  • identify word functions in a sentence;

  • state correctly what type of each sentence in a paragraph is;



Words are classified based on eight parts of speech


  • verb,

  • noun,

  • pronoun,

  • adjective,

  • adverb,

  • preposition,

  • conjunction, and

  • interjection.



  • Transitive Verb

    • Dracula bites his victims on the neck.

  • Intransitive Verb

    - The boy ran away as fast as he could.


Linking Verbs

A linking verb connects a subject to a subject complement which identifies or describes the subject.

verbs of sensation

"feel," "look," "smell," "sound," "taste”

verbs of existence

"act," "appear," "be," "become," "continue," "grow," "prove," "remain," "seem," "turn".



- Others thought it became tedious after the first fifteen minutes.

In this sentence, the linking verb "became" links the subject "it" to the subject complement "tedious."

- Some of us thought that the play was very good.

( The verb "was" links the subject complement "very good" to subject "the play".

- The play seems ridiculous to me.

- He tried hard to appear calm.




  • Griffin insists that the water tastes terrible.

    In this sentence, the adjective "terrible" is a subject complement that describes a quality of the water.


  • I tasted the soup before adding more salt.

    Here the noun phrase "the soup" identifies what "I tasted." "The soup" is the direct object of the verb "tasted."



  • The bear caught a salmon in the

  • stream.

  • Portia White was an opera singer.


  • A noun can function in a sentence as asubject, adirectobject, anindirect object, asubject complement, and anobject complement.


Pronouns are classified into several types, including


the personal pronoun,

the demonstrative pronoun,

the interrogative pronoun,

the indefinite pronoun,

the relative pronoun,

the reflexive pronoun, and

the intensive pronoun.


  • We will meet at the library at 3:30 p.m.

  • Deborah and Roberta will meet us at the newest coffee shop in the city center.

  • Ours is the green one on the corner.

  • Three customers wanted these.

  • Who wrote the novel Rockbound?

  • The candidate who wins the greatest popular vote is not always elected.

  • Make sure you give everyone a copy of the amended bylaws.

  • Richard usually remembered to send a copy of his e-mail to himself.



An adjective modifies a noun or a pronoun by describing, identifying, or quantifying words. An adjective usually precedes the noun or the pronoun which it modifies.


  • He is a Mexican boy.

  • He is a quiet man.

  • I can't complete my assignment because I don't have the textbook.

  • Even though my friend preferred those plates, I bought these.

  • What book are you reading?



An adverb can modify a verb, an adjective, another adverb, a phrase, or a clause. An adverb indicates manner, time, place, cause, or degree and answers questions such as "how," "when," "where," "how much".


  • Modify a verb:- John speaksloudly. (How does John speak?)- She neversmokes. (When does she smoke?)

  • Modify an adjective:- He is reallyhandsome.

  • Modify another adverb:- She drives incrediblyslowly.



A preposition is a word governing, and usually coming in front of, a noun or pronoun and expressing a relation to another word or element, as in:

  • She left beforebreakfast.

  • Jane is waiting for you at the bus stop.

  • Her birthday is on 20 November.



  • A conjunction is a word that "joins". A conjunction joins two parts of a sentence.

    Here are some example conjunctions:

    Coordinating Conjunctions:

    and, but, or, nor, for, yet, so

    Subordinating Conjunctions:

    although, because, since, unless


  • Coordinating conjunctions are used to join two parts of a sentence that are grammatically equal. The two parts may be single words or clauses, for example:

    - Jack and Jill went up the hill.- The water was warm, but I didn't go swimming.

  • Subordinating conjunctions are used to join a subordinate dependent clause to a main clause, for example:

    - I went swimming although it was cold.



An interjection is a word added to a sentence to convey emotion. It is not grammatically related to any other part of the sentence.

  • Ouch, that hurt!

  • Oh no, I forgot that the exam was today.

  • Hey! Put that down!

  • I don't know about you but, good lord, I think taxes are too high!



A group of words forming a sentence but without a finite verb.

 Walk slowly

 A handsome man



group of words with a subjectand predicate but not necessarily expressing a complete idea - i.e. the words do not necessarily make a sentence.

 When I was fifteen

 If I were a millionaire



There are two types of clauses:

1. Independent clause (simple sentence)

e.g. Peter was ill.

e.g. Peter laughed.

2. Subordinate/dependent clause

(subordinator+ independent clause)

e.g. Because  Peter was ill, ....

e.g. Since  Peter could not concentrate well, ....

*Note: a subordinate clause by itself is not a complete sentence. It must be combined with an independent clause to become one.

It can stand alone.

It can not stand alone.


Independent Clause

Independent Clause

the Prime Minister is inOttawa

the Prime Minister is in Ottawa


Dependent Clause


The committee will meettomorrow.

The committee will meetwhen the Prime Minister is in Ottawa.

Adverb of time

Dependent Clause functions as an adverb

(adverb clause)


Noun Clause

Adjective Clause

Adverb Clause


What is a sentence?

A sentence is a group of words that :

  • must contain at least one subject and one verb

  • must also express a complete thought

  • must end with a full stop (.), a questionmark (?) or an exclamationmark (!)



Every complete sentence contains two parts:

a subject and a predicate.

The subject is what (or whom) the sentence is about, while the predicate tells something about the subject.



  • Nelly is intelligent.

  • She works hard.

  • Laughter heals.

  • Was he upset?

  • Whose mobile phone is this?

  • They seem lost.

  • It won't rain.

  • Don't cry! *

  • Please switch off the fan.*


Non-sentence examples

  • The lady in red. (There is no verb.)

  • Was very good (There is no subject.)

  • The thief stole (This is not a complete thought.)

  • Although he was sad (This is not a complete thought.)

  • Last night at about ten (There is no subject or verb.)


Sentence Types

  • The simple sentence.

  • The compound sentence.

  • The complex sentence.

  • The compound-complex sentence.



  • The Simple Sentence

    A simple sentence consists of only one independent clause.

    REMEMBER: Compound subjects and verbs may exist in one clause.



Simple sentence

Simple sentence:

  • One single clause (independent

    clause) / Subject + Verb + (Object)

    e.g.Peter likes swimming.

    e.g.Peter is sleeping.

    2. Phrase + independent clause

    e.g. In spite of the problems, Peter

    managed to finish his work on time.

    e.g. Feeling not very well, Peter still

    managed to finish his work on time.


  • Janeran around the house.

    (simple subject; simple verb)

  • Jane and Garyran and stumbled.

    (compound subject; compound verb)

  • Alice and Joysang the duet.

    (compound subject; simple verb)

  • The woman with the blue feathered hat drove the car to the end of the route.

    (simple subject; simple verb)



A compound sentence consists of two or more independent clauses.

Canada is arich country.

Still, it has manypoor people.

Canada is a rich country, but still ithas many poor people.

Simple Sentence

Simple Sentence

Compound Sentence


Compound sentence

Compound sentence:

Independent clause + coordinator + independent clause

e.g. Peter was sick  but   he did not

see a doctor.

e.g. Peter was sick  and  he could

not concentrate well.


A compound sentence is most effective when you use it to create a sense of balance or contrast between two (or more) equally-important pieces of information:

Montreal has better clubs, butToronto has better cinemas.

Independent Clause

Independent Clause


The independent clauses of a compound sentence may be connected in one of two ways.

  • Connect the two clauses with a coordinate conjunction and a comma.

  • Connect the two clauses with a semi-colon.

  • After class, Alan went to the movies, but John went home.

  • The car stopped, and the light turned red.

  • The horse jumped the fence; the cow kicked the bucket.

  • D.Deeprasert


    A complex sentence contains one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses.


    Complex sentence

    Complex sentence: Independent clause + subordinate clause (subordinator + independentclause)

    e.g. Peter went back to school

    although he was not feeling well.

    e.g. Whether  students attend classes

    should be optional.

    e.g. Peter would have passed the exam if

    if  he had worked harder.


    • They came after we left.

    • We hid under the bridge until they passed.

    • The plan which seemed the best was missing.

    • After the storm was over, we waited until the water level went down. (multiple dependent clauses – beginning and end.



    Compound-Complex sentences contain two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses.

    • We left, and the party endedafter they came.

    • The booklet will be helpful, and the instructions will be clear when you read them.

    • The paperwhich is on the tablewill give the information, and if you follow directions, you will find the treasure.


    The following are some common subordinators:


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