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Introduction to Microprocessors. From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Microprocessor. A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). [1]

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Introduction to microprocessors

Introduction to Microprocessors

From: Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


Microprocessor
Microprocessor

  • A microprocessor incorporates most or all of the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC). [1]

  • The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using BCD arithmetics on 4-bit words.

  • Other embedded uses of 4 and 8-bit microprocessors, such as terminals, printers, various kinds of automation etc, followed rather quickly.

  • Affordable 8-bit microprocessors with 16-bit addressingalso led to the first general purpose microcomputers in the mid-1970s.


Microprocessor1
Microprocessor

  • Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6.75 mm) in its packaging


Central processing unit
Central processing unit

  • A central processing unit (CPU), or sometimes just called processor, is a description of a class of logic machines that can execute computer programs.

  • This broad definition can easily be applied to many early computers that existed long before the term "CPU" ever came into widespread usage. However, the term itself and its initialism have been in use in the computer industry at least since the early 1960s (Weik 1961).

  • The form, design and implementation of CPUs have changed dramatically since the earliest examples, but their fundamental operation has remained much the same.


Central processing unit1
Central processing unit

  • Early CPUs were custom-designed as a part of a larger, usually one-of-a-kind, computer. However, this costly method of designing custom CPUs for a particular application has largely given way to the development of mass-produced processors that are suited for one or many purposes.

  • This standardization trend generally began in the era of discrete transistormainframes and minicomputers and has rapidly accelerated with the popularization of the integrated circuit (IC).

  • The IC has allowed increasingly complex CPUs to be designed and manufactured in very small spaces (on the order of millimeters). Both the miniaturization and standardization of CPUs have increased the presence of these digital devices in modern life far beyond the limited application of dedicated computing machines. Modern microprocessors appear in everything from automobiles to cell phones to children's toys.


Central processing unit2
Central processing unit

  • Prior to the advent of machines that resemble today's CPUs, computers such as the ENIAC had to be physically rewired in order to perform different tasks.

  • These machines are often referred to as "fixed-program computers," since they had to be physically reconfigured in order to run a different program.

  • Since the term "CPU" is generally defined as a software (computer program) execution device, the earliest devices that could rightly be called CPUs came with the advent of the stored-program computer.


Like being inside the computer
... like being inside the computer

slartmagazine.com


EDVAC, one of the first electronic stored program computers.


Eniac
ENIAC

  • The idea of a stored-program computer was already present during ENIAC's design, but was initially omitted so the machine could be finished sooner. On June 30, 1945, before ENIAC was even completed, mathematician John von Neumann distributed the paper entitled "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC."

  • It outlined the design of a stored-program computer that would eventually be completed in August 1949 (von Neumann 1945). EDVAC was designed to perform a certain number of instructions (or operations) of various types. These instructions could be combined to create useful programs for the EDVAC to run.

  • Significantly, the programs written for EDVAC were stored in high-speed computer memory rather than specified by the physical wiring of the computer. This overcame a severe limitation of ENIAC, which was the large amount of time and effort it took to reconfigure the computer to perform a new task.

  • With von Neumann's design, the program, or software, that EDVAC ran could be changed simply by changing the contents of the computer's memory.[1]


Eniac1
ENIAC

  • ENIAC, short for Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer,[1] was the first general-purpose electronic computer. Precisely, it was the first high-speed, purely electronic, Turing-complete, digital computer capable of being reprogrammed to solve a full range of computing problems,[2] since earlier machines had been built with some of these properties. ENIAC was designed and built to calculate artilleryfiring tables for the U.S. Army's Ballistic Research Laboratory.

  • The contract was signed on June 5, 1943 and Project PX was constructed by the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering from July, 1943. It was unveiled on February 14, 1946 at Penn, having cost almost $500,000. ENIAC was shut down on November 9, 1946 for a refurbishment and a memory upgrade, and was transferred to Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland in 1947. There, on July 29 of that year, it was turned on and would be in continuous operation until 11:45 p.m. on October 2, 1955.


Glen Beck (background) and Betty Snyder (foreground) program the ENIAC in BRL building 328. (U.S. Army photo)


Programmers Betty Jean Jennings (left) and Fran Bilas (right) operate the ENIAC's main control panel at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S. Army photo from the archives of the ARL Technical Library)


Cpl. Irwin Goldstein (foreground) sets the switches on one of the ENIAC's function tables at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering. (U.S. Army photo)


Microprocessor2
Microprocessor of the ENIAC's function tables at the

  • Processors were for a long period constructed out of small and medium-scale ICs containing the equivalent of a few to a few hundred transistors.

  • The integration of the whole CPU onto a single VLSI chip therefore greatly reduced the cost of processing capacity.

  • From their humble beginnings, continued increases in microprocessor capacity has rendered other forms of computers almost completely obsolete (see history of computing hardware), with one or more microprocessor as processing element in everything from the smallest embedded systems and handheld devices to the largest mainframes and super computers.


Microprocessor3
Microprocessor of the ENIAC's function tables at the

  • Three projects arguably delivered a complete microprocessor at about the same time, namely Intel's 4004, the Texas Instruments (TI) TMS 1000, and Garrett AiResearch'sCentral Air Data Computer (CADC).

The 4004 with cover removed (left) and as actually used (right).


Architectures
ARCHITECTURES of the ENIAC's function tables at the

  • 8-bit designs

  • 16-bit designs

  • 32-bit designs

  • 64-bit designs in personal computers

  • Multicore designs

  • RISC

  • Special-purpose designs

    • microcontrollers, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics processing units (GPU).


  • 65xx of the ENIAC's function tables at the

    • MOS Technology 6502

    • Western Design Center 65xx

  • ARM family

  • AlteraNios, Nios II

  • Atmel AVR architecture (purely microcontrollers)

  • EISC

  • RCA 1802 (aka RCA COSMAC, CDP1802)

  • DEC Alpha

  • Intel

    • 4004, 4040

    • 8080, 8085

    • 8048, 8051

    • iAPX 432

    • i860, i960

    • Itanium

  • LatticeMico32

  • M32R architecture

  • MIPS architecture

  • Motorola

    • Motorola 6800

    • Motorola 6809

    • Motorola 68000 family, ColdFire

    • [[MotoG4, G5


  • NSC 320xx of the ENIAC's function tables at the

  • OpenCoresOpenRISC architecture

  • PA-RISC family

  • National Semiconductor SC/MP ("scamp")

  • Signetics 2650

  • SPARC

  • SuperH family

  • TransmetaCrusoe, Efficeon (VLIW architectures, IA-32 32-bit Intel x86emulator)

  • INMOS Transputer

  • x86 architecture

    • Intel 8086, 8088, 80186, 80188 (16-bit real mode-only x86 architecture)

    • Intel 80286 (16-bit real mode and protected mode x86 architecture)

    • IA-32 32-bit x86 architecture

    • x86-64 64-bit x86 architecture

  • XAP processor from Cambridge Consultants

  • Xilinx

    • MicroBlaze soft processor

    • PowerPC405 embedded hard processor in Virtex FPGAs

  • Zilog

    • Z80, Z180, eZ80

    • Z8, eZ8

    • and others


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