U.S. Imperialism: World War I. Do Now. Agenda. Ch. 21 Quiz WWI Overview - Video Wilson’s Fourteen Points Homework:. Get out a pen/pencil and red pen. Be prepared to take quiz at the bell. Unit 7 Overview. This week… you will be able to.
Ch. 21 Quiz
WWI Overview - Video
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
George Washington’s Warning:
“Avoid European entanglements!”
Outbreak of War
The Two Alliances:
The Central Powers
Turkey/ The Ottoman Empire
Stages of United States Involvement:
Warring for Peace
Victorious World Power
Economic Links with Great Britain and France
30% of Americans = 1st or 2nd generation immigrants.
Britain cabled news stories to U.S. newspapers depicting German soldiers committing atrocities in Belgium and France, so Americans became disgusted with the Germans.
Germans Challenge American Neutrality
Germany launched campaign of unrestricted submarine warfare in Feb. 1917
B/C stalemate in trenches across France & Brit. Blockade so exhausted fighting
Feb. 1917 German foreign secretary, Arther Zimmerman, sent secret telegram to German minister in Mexico to join a military alliance vs. US
GY would help MX recover territories lost in Mexican War
Election of 1916: Wilson won the presidency on the slogan “He kept us out of war.”The War Debate
National Security League [Eastern Republican business leaders, led by Theodore Roosevelt] argued for more defense spending in preparation for war.
1916: Wilson convinced Congress to pass the National Defense Act , increasing the army and navy.
Opposition to War
Midwestern and Western Americans opposed the preparedness movement.
Opponents of war included:
Anti-war leaders were:
The Decision for War
Germany launched unrestricted submarine warfare.
The Zimmerman Telegram was intercepted from Germany promising to help Mexico regain New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas if they joined the war on the side of the Germans.
Russian Revolution brought a democracy to Russia
Submarine Attacks: Germany attacked five unarmed U.S. merchant ships.
Wilson’s Peace Efforts
Wilson sent his Chief Foreign Advisor to Europe to unsuccessfully negotiate a peace settlement (“peace without victory”).
Financing the War
Congress raised $33 billion for the war.
Wilson’s 14 Points included…
Treaty of Versailles
Felt they were not fairly compensated for their efforts
The League of Nations was formed, but the US never did join…
Wilson’s Ratification Battle
Congress’s concern: The League of Nations would interfere with U.S. sovereignty and cause Europe to violate the Monroe doctrine.
Peace without Victory?
Revenge against Germany & compensation?
Reasons the US didn’t Join League of Nations
Wilson refused to compromise on the issue of America’s unconditional adherence to the charter of the League of Nations (hardened Senate opposition)
Opponents believed that the League would lead to further involvement in foreign wars
Senator Lodge = skillful opponent of the League
Personal & political rivalry b/n Lodge and Wilson = no chance of compromise
Demobilization & Recession
= (anti-German hysteria ) Anti-Communist Hysteria
Union gains: Under Roosevelt’s Square Deal, the Clayton Antitrust Act, and the National War Labor Board, labor made many gains.
Strikes of 1919:
these strikes turned public opinion against unions.
African American migration to northern cities during the war yielded racial tension.
Whites saw them as competitors for jobs.
Race riots erupted during the war (East St. Louis, Illinois = largest)
In 1919, there were violent riots in many cities.