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MDPI/GIG OIL AND GAS TRAINING DRILLING FOR TECHNICIANS . Management Development and Petroleum Skills Productivity InstituteDevelopment Institute. Drilling For Technicians. TABLE OF CONTENTS. Course Objectives Origin and Nature of Petroleum Petroleum Exploration

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Mdpi

MDPI/GIG OIL AND GAS TRAINING

DRILLING FOR TECHNICIANS

Management Development and Petroleum Skills

Productivity InstituteDevelopment Institute


Table of contents

Drilling For Technicians

TABLE OF CONTENTS

  • Course Objectives

  • Origin and Nature of Petroleum

  • Petroleum Exploration

  • The Search for Oil

  • Drilling Facilities

  • Well Types

  • Oil rig Systems

  • Drilling Process

  • Completing the Well

  • Drilling Problems

  • Drilling Career and Opportunities

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Course objectives

Drilling For Technicians

Course Objectives

The course is designed to introduce participants to the drilling process, equipment and opportunities in the oil and gas industry.

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Origin and nature of petroleum

Origin and Nature ofPetroleum

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  • Petroleum is formed from the organic remains of marine organisms which became entrained within sea-floor sediments. Petroleum is the generic name for group of hydrocarbons including oil, gas, coal, etc.


Oil well typical

Oil Well (Typical)

Drilling For Technicians

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Drilling For Technicians

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The Search for Oil - Exploration

The task of finding oil is assigned to geophysics and geologists. They look for the right conditions for an oil trap -- the right source rock, reservoir rock and entrapment using satellite images and also some of the following methods:

  • Gravity meters to measure tiny changes in

    the earth's gravitational field that could indicate flowing oil,


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The Search for Oil - Exploration (Cont’d)

  • Magnetometers to measure tiny changes in

    the earth's magnetic field caused by flowing oil.

  • Electronic noses called sniffers to detect the smell

    of hydrocarbons.

  • Most commonly used is seismology,ie. creating shock waves that pass through hidden rock layers and interpreting the waves that are reflected back to the surface.


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Drilling For Technicians

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The Search for Oil - Exploration (Cont’d)

In seismic surveys, a shock wave is created by the

Compressed-air gun, Thumper truck or Explosives. The shock waves travel beneath the surface of the earth and are reflected back by the various rock layers. The reflections travel at different speeds depending upon the type or density of rock layers through which they pass.

The reflections of the shock waves are detected by sensitive microphones or vibration detectors -- hydrophones over water, or seismometers over land. The readings are interpreted by seismologists for signs of oil and gas traps.


Searching for oil over water using seismology

Searching for oil over water using seismology

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Petroleum exploration facilities

Petroleum Exploration (Facilities)

Drilling For Technicians

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Drilling For Technicians

Jubilee Development Drilling(Eirik Raude semi-submersible rig).

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Offshore operations

Offshore Operations

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  • Offshore operationsare fundamentally the same as onshore operations with the major difference being in the complexity of the drilling sites and hence their costs. Offshore facilities are self-contained semi-permanent structures from which many wells are drilled and completed.

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Drilling geometries

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Drilling Geometries

  • Wells can be drilled in a number of different geometries from the simplest vertical wells to directional wells and complicated multilateral completions.

  • Directional drilling technology allows the industry to access deposits that would otherwise be inaccessible.

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Drilling geometries1

Drilling For Technicians

Drilling Geometries

Directional

Drilling

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Directional drilling

Directional Drilling

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  • Advances in horizontal drilling have enhanced directional drilling as a means of concentrating operations at one site and reducing the ‘footprint’ on land and the number of platforms offshore.

  • The technology now enables access to a reservoir up to several kilometres from the drill rig. It also allows for more flexibility in selecting a drill site, especially where environmental concerns are raised.


Types of wells

Types of Wells

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There are three main types of conventional wells. The most common are:

  • Oil Wells: Oil wells with associated gas.

  • Natural Gas Wells: Natural gas wells are drilled specifically for natural gas and contain little or no oil.


Types of wells cont d

Types of Wells (Cont’d)

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  • Condensate Wells: Contain natural gas as well as a liquid. Condensate is a liquid hydrocarbon mixture that is often separated from the natural gas either at the wellhead or during the processing of the natural gas. Depending on the type of well that is being drilled, completion may differ slightly. Natural gas, being lighter than air, rises to the surface of a well.


Drilling process

Drilling Process

Drilling For Technicians

  • Drilling of the well commences after seismic investigations have been completed. Normally, dedicated drilling rigs either on mobile onshore units or offshore floating rigs are used.

  • Larger production platforms may also have their own production drilling equipment.

  • The main components of the drilling rig are the derrick, floor, draw works, drive and mud handling unit. The control and power can be hydraulic or electric.

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Drilling for technicians

Drilling For Technicians

Oil Rig Systems

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The rotary drilling rig

Drilling For Technicians

The Rotary Drilling Rig

  • The rotary drilling rig uses a drill bit to cut through the earth. As the hole gets deeper, sections of drill pipes are added to the drill bit to form the drill stringthatis connected to the engine that turns the drill bit to cut the hole. Rotary rig’s operation is similar to that of the domestic hand-held electric drill.

  • There are four main operations in a drilling rig: hoisting, rotating, circulating, and power. The hoisting system is used to raise and lower pipe in and out of the hole, and to support the drill string to control the weight on the drill bit during drilling.

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Hoisting system

Drilling For Technicians

Hoisting System

  • The hoisting system consists of the derrick, travelling and crown blocks, the drilling line, and the drawworks. The derrick is a steel tower that supports the travelling and crown blocks, the drill bit and pipe (drill string).

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Hoisting system cont d

Drilling For Technicians

Hoisting System (Cont’d)

  • The crown (stationary) and travelling blocks are a set of pulleys that use interconnected steel cables to raise and lower the drill string. The crown block is a stationary pulley located at the top of the derrick.  

  • The cable is connected to a winch or drawworks that contain a large drum around which the drilling cable is wrapped. As the drum rotates one way or the other, the drilling cable spools on or off the drum and raises or lowers the drill string.

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Rotating equipment

Drilling For Technicians

Rotating Equipment

  • The rotating equipment that turns the drilling bit consists of the swivel, the kelly, the rotary table, drill pipe, drill collars, and the bit. The swivel is attached to the bottom of the traveling block and permits the drill string to rotate. The kelly is a square or hexagonal shaped section of pipe that is attached to the swivel. The rotation of the rotary table turns the kelly which in turn rotates the drill string and the drill bit.

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Rotary workers with drill pipe

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Rotating equipment cont d

Drilling For Technicians

Rotating Equipment (Cont’d)

  • Drilling pipe is round steel tubes about 30 feet (9m) long with a diameter of from 4 to 5 inches. The drill collars are used to add weight on the bit.

    Drill pipes have threaded connections on each end that allow the pipes to be joined together to form longer sections as the hole gets deeper.

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Rotating equipment cont d1

Rotating Equipment (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • The drilling bit is used to create the hole. Different drilling bits are used depending on the type of rock that is encountered.  The most common drill bits are roller cone bits and diamond bits, and are about six inches in diameter.

    Roller cone bits have three cones containing rows of teeth. The cones rotate on bearings and turn as the drilling bit rotates. The teeth cut and crush the rock to create the hole.  

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Rotating equipment cont d2

Rotating Equipment (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • Diamond bits have a single fixed head that contains many small diamonds. As the bit turns the diamonds cut the rock.

  • Drill bits have small nozzles that spray drilling fluids to remove the rock fragments from the bottom of the hole.

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Diamond studded drill bits

Drilling For Technicians

Diamond Studded Drill Bits

Source: Sandia National Laboratory (left), DOE - National Energy Technology Laboratory

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Mud circulation in the hole

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Circulating system

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Circulating System

  • Drilling operations use fluids (drilling mud) to reduce friction and remove rock fragments or cuttings. The mud is mixed in the tanks and the circulating system pumps the drilling fluids through a hose to the swivel, down the kelly and drill pipe, and out of the nozzles in the drilling bit. The fluid then returns to the surface through the space between the outside of the drill string and the inside of the hole. At the surface the debris is separated from the fluid.

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Circulating system cont d

Circulating System(Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • The cuttings are separated from the mud in a vibrating screen called a shale shaker.

  • Drilling mud is a mixture of water, clay, and special minerals and chemicals. Different muds are used during the drilling process to adjust to rock formations, temperature, and pressure. Drilling mud removes cuttings from the hole, cools and lubricates the drilling bit and maintains pressure in the hole to keep formation fluids from entering the hole and intermingling with oil/gas production.

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Circulating system cont d1

Circulating System (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

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  • Power System

  • Power for the drilling rig comes from two or more diesel engines and/or locally generated electricity.

  • Blowout Preventer (BOP)

  • They consist of a series of very powerful valves that are expected to close under pressure to stop the flow of petroleum, even in an emergency.

  • With onshore installations, the BOP sits under the drilling rig floor at the top of the surface casing. Offshore, the BOP is either above the water on the drilling rig platform or at the sea bed at the mud line.

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Blowout Preventer

This BOP configuration is typical for a well drilled with a hole size greater than 4-in. diameter. (Schlumberger)

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The oil drilling process

The Oil Drilling Process

Drilling For Technicians

The rig is set up and from the starter hole, the team

drills a surface hole down to a pre-set depth, above

where the oil trap is located.

The five basic steps for drilling the surface hole are:

  • Place the drill bit, collar and drill pipe in the hole.

  • Attach the kelly and turntable, and begin drilling.

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The oil drilling process cont d

The Oil Drilling Process (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • As drilling progresses, circulate mud through the pipe and out of the bit to float the rock cuttings out of the hole.

  • Add new sections (joints) of drill pipes as the hole gets deeper.

  • Remove (trip out) the drill pipe, collar and bit when the pre-set depth is reached.

  • Run and cement the casing to the pre-set depth, ie place casing-pipe sections into the hole to prevent it from collapsing in on itself. The casing pipe has spacers around the outside to keep it centred in the hole.

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Wire line logging

Wire Line Logging

Drilling For Technicians

  • Logging provides the means for using electrical instruments to measure formation properties and determine characteristics of the rock strata for drilling and production decisions.

  • The logging equipment, called Sonde, is lowered into the borehole to measure, e.g. resistivity and conductivity at various frequencies etc. The data is recorded on a long strip of paper, called The Log.

  • With Logging While Drilling (LWD), measurements are taken by embedded tools near bottom hole assembly as drilling proceeds downwards

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Well completion

Drilling For Technicians

Well Completion

  • When the well is drilled and confirmed that commercially viable quantities of hydrocarbon are present for extraction, the well must be 'completed' to allow for the flow of hydrocarbons out of the formation and up to the surface. The process includes strengthening the well hole with casing, evaluating the pressure and temperature of the formation, and installing the wellhead and lifting equipment or treating the formation to ensure an efficient flow of oil or natural gas out of the well.

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Well completion cont d

Drilling For Technicians

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Well Casing consists of a series of metal tubes installed in the drilled hole. Casing strengthens the sides of the well hole, ensures that no oil or natural gas seeps out of the well hole as it is brought to the surface, and keeps other fluids or gases from seeping into the formation through the well. It is also instrumental in preventing blowouts, allowing the formation to be 'sealed' from the top should dangerous pressure levels be reached.

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Well completion cont d1

Drilling For Technicians

Well Completion (Cont’d)

The type of casing used depends on the subsurface characteristics of the well, including the diameter of the well and the pressures and temperatures experienced throughout the well.  The diameter of the well hole depends on the size of the drill bit used.  

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Well completion cont d2

Well Completion(Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

There are five different types of well casing. They include:

  • Conductor Casing

  • Surface Casing

  • Intermediate Casing

  • Liner String

  • Production Casing

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Well completion cont d3

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

Conductor Casing

Conductor casing is installed first, usually prior to the arrival of the drilling rig. It is installed to prevent the top of the well from caving in and to help in the process of circulating the drilling fluid up from the bottom of the well. The conductor casing is cemented into place before drilling begins.

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Well completion cont d4

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

Surface Casing

Surface casing is installed inside the top of the conductor casing. It is smaller in diameter than the conductor casing and can be a few hundred to about 2000 feet long. The primary purpose of surface casing is to protect fresh water deposits near the surface of the well from being contaminated by leaking hydrocarbons or salt water from deeper underground.

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Well completion cont d5

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

Surface Casing

It also serves as a conduit for drilling mud returning to the surface, and helps protect the drill hole from being damaged during drilling. Surface casing, like conductor casing, is cemented into place.

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Well completion cont d6

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

Intermediate Casing

Intermediate casing is usually the longest section of casing found in a well. The primary purpose of intermediate casing is to minimize the hazards that come along with subsurface formations that may affect and contaminate the well, eg. abnormal underground pressure zones, shale, salt water and formations that might otherwise contaminate the well, such as underground salt-water deposits. These intermediate casing areas are also cemented into place for added protection.

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Well completion cont d7

Well Completion (Cont’d)

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Liner Strings

Liner strings are sometimes used instead of intermediate casing. They are run from the bottom of another casing to the open well area, and are usually attached to the previous casing with 'hangers', instead of being cemented into place. This type of casing is thus less permanent than intermediate casing.

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Well completion cont d8

Well Completion (Cont’d)

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Production Casing

Production casing, also called the 'oil string' or 'long string,’ is installed last and is the deepest section of casing in a well. The production casing runs to the bottom of the hole or stops just above the production zone and is perforated. Perforation is the process of piercing the casing wall and the cement behind it to provide openings through which formation fluids enter the wellbore.

The production casing provides a conduit from the surface of the well to the petroleum-producing formation and completely seals off the producing formation from water aquifers.

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Well completion cont d9

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Well Completion (Cont’d)

THE WELL

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Well completion cont d10

Well Completion (Cont’d)

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Tubing and Packers

  • After cementing the production casing, a final string of pipe called the tubing, about 1 to 4-1/2 inches, is run within the casing. The well fluids flow from the reservoir to the surface through the tubing.

  • A packer which is a ring made of metal and rubber is fitted around the tubing to provide a secure seal, keep well fluids and pressure away from the casing, thereby forcing the formation fluids into and up the tubing.

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Well completion cont d11

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • Lifting and Well Treatment

    Once the well is completed with the christmas tree, the hydrocarbons that exist in pressurized formations may naturally rise up through the well to the surface without the need for any lifting equipment or well treatment. When that does not happen, then lifting and/or well treatment is required.

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Well completion cont d12

Well Completion (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

Well Treatment

  • Fracturing consists of injecting a fluid into the well, to 'crack' or open up fractures already present in the formation to increase flow of hydrocarbons. Acidizing a well consists of injecting acid (usually hydrochloric acid) into the well. In limestone or carbonate formations, the acid dissolves portions of the rock in the formation, opening up existing spaces to allow for the flow of petroleum.

  • Fracturing, acidizing, and lifting equipment may all be used on the same well to increase permeability, widening the pores of the formation.

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Subsurface safety valve

Subsurface Safety Valve

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  • A subsurface safety valve is installed in the tubing string near the surface.  The valve closes to prevent flow of fluids when a fault is detected.

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Wellhead

Wellhead

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  • The wellhead includes all equipment on the surface that supports the various pipe strings, seals off the well, and controls the paths and flow rates of reservoir fluids. All wellheads have at least one casing head and casing hanger, usually, a tubing head and tubing hanger, and a Christmas tree.

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Christmas Tree

The 'christmas tree' is the piece of equipment that fits on top of the casing and tubing heads, and contains tubes and valves that control the flow of hydrocarbons and other fluids out of the well. It commonly contains many branches and is shaped somewhat like a tree, thus its name, ‘christmas tree.’

The christmas tree is the most visible part of a producing well, and allows for the surface monitoring and regulation of the production of hydrocarbons from a producing well.  A typical Christmas tree may be about two metres tall.

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Subsea Christmas Tree

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Drilling problems

Drilling Problems

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  • Fishing: A process to retrieve a lost tool or broken string using special grabbing tools. In extreme cases, explosives are used to blow up the junk and the broken pieces retrieved with a magnet.

  • Damaged reservoir rocks: Formation damage caused by heavy drilling mud that clogs the pores or causes chemical or physical changes in the rock. This decreases the rock's permeability near the well bore and prevents or reduces production from the reservoir rock when the well is completed.

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Drilling problems cont d

Drilling Problems (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • Lost circulation: Occurs when a very porous and permeable formation is encountered in the subsurface. The drilling mud flows into the formation without building up a filter cake. During lost circulation, more mud is pumped down the well than what flows back up to the surface. Fine-grained fibrous materials, eg. mica flakes, ground pecan hulls, sugar cane hulls, shredded cellophane, etc. are pumped down the well to stop lost-circulation problems.

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Drilling problems cont d1

Drilling Problems (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • Hazardous Area Working: Special precautions are taken when working in potentially hazardous locations to prevent fires and explosions

  • Blow-out: An unexpected and uncontrolled pressure in the subsurface can cause a blowout. When that occurs, the blow-out preventers are supposed to close to contain the pressure and hydrocarbons. If the preventers fail, the result can be catastrophic and even fatal, eg. recent Deepwater Horizon blow-out in the Gulf of Mexico.

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Drilling problems cont d2

Drilling Problems (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

  • Logistical Challenges: Caused by transporting heavy equipment into rather remote and environmentally hostile locations.

  • Environmental: Prevention of discharge of contaminants into the environment

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The rig crew

The Rig Crew

Drilling For Technicians

Drilling is usually done by a service company or drilling contractor. The drilling crew is composed of a toolpusher, a driller, a derrickman, a motorman and several roughnecks and roustabouts.

The toolpusher, is the location supervisor for the drilling contractor. The job is largely administrative, including ensuring that the rig has sufficient materials, spare parts and skilled personnel for efficient operations.

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The rig crew cont d

The Rig Crew (Cont’d)

Drilling For Technicians

The driller is the supervisor of the rig crew. The driller must know how to perform each of the jobs on the rig to be able to supervise the work and control the major rig systems. The driller operates the pumps, drawworks, and rotary table via the drillers console. The driller also operates the drawworks brake using a long-handled lever. Hence, the driller is sometimes referred to as the person who is "on the brake.“

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The rig crew cont d1

Drilling For Technicians

The Rig Crew (Cont’d)

The derrickman is in charge of the mud-processing area during periods of circulation. The derrickman measures mud density, reports to the toolpusher, but is instructed in detail by the mud engineer on what to add to the mud, how fast and how much. His other job is to handle pipe in the derrick while pulling out or running into the hole.

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The rig crew cont d2

Drilling For Technicians

The Rig Crew (Cont’d)

Themotorman is responsible for maintenance of the engines. While all members of the rig crew help with major repairs, the motorman does routine preventive maintenance and minor repairs.

A roughneck is a low-ranking member of the drilling crew. The roughneck usually performs semiskilled and unskilled manual labor

Aroustabout is any unskilled manual labourer on the rig site. Roustabouts do the peripheral tasks, ranging from cleaning up location to cleaning threads to digging trenches to scraping and painting rig components.

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Drilling for technicians1

Drilling For Technicians

DRILLING AND RIG JOBS

Cement Supervisor Deep Coiled Tubing SupervisorDerrickmanDrillerMotorman

Mud LoggerRig ElectricianRig Manager  RoughneckRoustaboutToolpusher  Wireline Operator

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