ROCK NOTES
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ROCK NOTES. I. What is a rock?. Rock - two or more minerals (found in the earth’s crust) bound together in a solid form. II. Rock types. A. Sedimentary rocks - formed by the hardening and cementing of layers of sediment. II. Rock types.

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ROCK NOTES

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Rock notes

ROCK NOTES


I what is a rock

I. What is a rock?

Rock - two or more minerals (found in the earth’s crust) bound together in a solid form


Rock notes

II. Rock types

A. Sedimentary rocks- formed by the hardening and cementing of layers of sediment.


Rock notes

II. Rock types

B. Metamorphic rocks- formed when rocks that already exist are changed by heat and pressure into new kinds of rocks.


Rock notes

II. Rock types

C. Igneous rocks- formed by cooling and hardening of hot molten rock from inside the Earth. Hot molten rock from inside the earth is called magma.


Iii igneous rock formation

III. Igneous Rock Formation

A.Magma - molten (liquid) rock found beneath the earth’s surface.Intrusive Rock - rock formed underground when magma cools


Rock notes

III. Igneous Rock Formation

A.From Magma (Intrusive )

Cooled slowly

Deep Shallow

Large/Coarse Small

Crystals Crystals


Iii igneous rock formation1

III. Igneous Rock Formation

B. Lava - magma on the surface of the earthExtrusive Rock - rock formed on the surface when lava cools


Rock notes

III. Igneous Rock Formation

B.From Lava (Extrusive)

Cooled quickly

Surface

Fine Crystals

Glassy Rocks


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IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics

A. Felsic (feldspar and silica--Granitic, Continental)

  • Chemistry: High percent of silicates (Si) and water. Low percent of iron (Fe), calcuim (Ca), & magnesium (Mg)

  • Color: Light colored minerals

  • Viscosity: More viscous (Thick--Low temperatures and slow flowing)

  • Trapped gases: H2O, O, CO2, H2, CO, H2S, SO2

  • Density: Low level (high gas content)


Rock notes

IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics

B. Mafic (Magnesium and iron--Basaltic, Oceanic)

  • Chemistry: Low percent of silicates (Si). High in Ca, Fe, Mg.

  • Color: Dark colored minerals

  • Viscosity:Low viscosity (thin--high temperature and more fluid)

  • Trapped gases: fewer present

  • Density: Higher level (few gases)


Rock notes

IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics

C. Andesitic (Intermediate, Continental)

  • Chemistry: Intermediate percent of silicates (Si). Intermediate in Ca, Fe, Mg.

  • Color: Intermediate colored minerals

  • Viscosity: Intermediate viscosity (fluidity)

  • Trapped gases: Intermediate amounts present

  • Density: Intermediate level


Iv igneous rock characteristics d review

IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics (D. Review)

A.FelsicB.Mafic

Mostly lightMostly dark

colored minerals colored minerals

[ Si] [Ca, Fe, Mg] [ Si] [Ca, Fe, Mg]

C. Andesitic

Contain light and dark minerals

Intermediate levels of [Si, Ca, Fe, Mg]


Iv igneous rock characteristics d review1

IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics (D. Review)

A. Felsic Dissolved B. Mafic DissolvedGases Gases

Thick & SlowThin & Fast

Hard For GasesGases Escape

To Escape Easily

Explosive Eruptions “Gentle” Eruptions

Note: Dissolved Gases Include H2O, S, CO2, H2, CO, H2S, SO2


Rock notes

IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics

D. Review


Rock notes

IV. Igneous Rock Characteristics (D. Review)

Darker colored rocks

Lighter colored rocks

Large crystals

Intrusive

Small crystals

Extrusive

NO crystals


Rock notes

V. Plate Tectonics and Igneous Rocks


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VI. How we study rocks

A. Color: Lightness/darkness indicates chemistry. Darker rocks tend to have more iron (Mafic),lighter rocks have more silicon (Felsic).

B. Crystal size: Can be measured in millimeters using a hand lens/microscope and ruler. Larger crystals need more time to form and are found in rocks that cool slowly (intrusive).


Rock notes

Felsic

Fine crystals

Mafic

Andesitic

Small crystals

Large crystals


Rock notes

VI. How we study rocks

C. Density: mass (g) ÷ volume (ml or cm3).

More dense rocks formed from magma that originates deeper in mantle (less explosive volcanoes) and contain fewer gases (Mafic).

Less dense rocks formed from magma that originates from outer mantle (more explosive volcanoes) and contain more trapped gases due to interaction with ocean water (Felsic).

=(C4/D4)


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