Respiration
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Respiration. Releases energy from glucose  ATP. Respiration. Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi  6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O + 36 ATP.

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Respiration

Respiration

Releases energy from glucose  ATP


Respiration1

Respiration

Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi

 6 CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP

http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/12580-the-science-of-life-cellular-respiration-video.htm (introduction, 1.5min)


Respiration

  • Rod shaped

  • Double membrane

  • Inner membrane folded extensively into cristae to increase surface area for reactions


Atp adenosine tri phosphate

ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate)

Adenosine Diphosphate phosphate

ADP + Pi + energy  ATP

High energy phosphate bonds

Universal energy carrier

Quick easy source of energy (compared to glucose)


Respiration

Pi

Pi

Pi

Adenosine

Adenosine

Pi

Pi

ADP

Pi

Energy for Life

Energy from

Glucose

ATP


Respiration 3 phases

Respiration – 3 phases

  • Glycolysis (cytoplasm) Glucose  2 pyruvate

  • Krebs Cycle (matrix) Pyruvate  CO2 & H

  • Electron transfer chain (mitochondrial membrane). Electrons are passed along a series of carriers. Oxygen is the final acceptor of H+ and e- to make water.


Respiration

cytoplasm

matrix

membranes

GLYCOLYSIS

GLUCOSE

O2

NADH2

NADH2 FADH2

KREB’S CYCLE

ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

PYRUVATE

NAD FAD

NAD

H2O

OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

2ATP

34ATP

2ATP

CO2


Glycolysis

Glycolysis

  • Glucose too large to diffuse into mitochondria

  • Glucose (6C)  2 pyruvate (3C)

  • NAD  NADH + H+

  • 2 ATP

  • Does not require oxygen


Respiration

Cytoplasm

Membrane

Mitochondrion

Glucose (6C)

2 ATP

G

L

Y

C

O

L

Y

S

I

S

4 ADP

36 ADP

4 ATP

36 ATP

CO2 + H2O

Pyruvate (3C)

normal

low oxygen

yeast fermentation

lactic fermentation

Alcohol & CO2

Lactic acid


Kreb s citric acid cycle

Kreb’s (citric acid) Cycle

  • Pyruvate  acetyl coA in mitochondria

  • acetyl-coA  2 CO2 (waste) + coA (recycled) + H2

    • NAD + H2 NADH2

    • FAD + H2 FADH2


Respiration

Pyruvate

Acetyl coA

NAD & FAD

A co-enzyme carrier molecule

CO2

(waste)

Krebs Cycle

coA

NADH2

FADH2


Electron transfer chain

Electron Transfer Chain

  • NADH2 + FADH2

     NAD + FAD + H+ + high energy electrons

  • e- transferred along a series of electron carriers, cytochromes, in the cristae. Energy from the electrons is used to produce ATP at each move.

  • Oxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor  water


Respiration

34 ATP

ATP

NADH2

H+

e-

NAD

H+

e-

ATP

e-

ATP

e-

e-

ATP

e-

e-

e-

e-

e-

H2

H2O

O

This cannot occur without oxygen!!!!!


Rate of respiration

Rate of respiration

  • ↑Temperature  ↑reaction rate (up to an optimum temp.) (↑ energy of enzymes and substrate  ↑collisions).

  • 2. ↑ Body’s energy demands  ↑ rate of respiration (Eg running  muscle cells need more energy)

  • 3. Poisons.Eg Cyanide prevents O2 combining with hydrogen ( ↓ respiration).


Respiration

Where would you expect to find the most mitochondria?

eg Muscle and liver cells

Active cells with high energy needs


Respiration

MENU

Quick Quiz

Key Words

Videos

MCQ

Exercises


Key words

Key words

Back to menu

  • respiration

  • mitochondria

  • cristae

  • surface area

  • matrix

  • ATP

  • glycolysis

  • Kreb’s cycle

  • citric acid cycle

  • electron transport chain

  • glucose

  • pyruvate

  • electron carrier

  • final acceptor

  • acetyl coA

  • NADH2

  • FADH2

  • oxidative phosphorylation

  • lactic fermentation

  • yeast fermentation

  • anaerobic


Quick quiz

QUICK QUIZ

Back to menu

  • Cellular respiration takes place in the ____

  • Glucose is broken down into ____ during ____

  • ____ is small enough to enter the mitochondrion

  • ____ in the matrix catalyse the reactions of the ____ cycle

  • The inner mitochondrial membrane is folded to increase ____

  • NAD and FAD carry ____ to the electron transport chain

  • ____ is the universal energy carrier

  • Most ATP is produced in the ____ stage

  • ____ respiration yields 34-38 ATP

  • ____ respiration occurs in the absence of sufficient oxygen

  • Yeast undergoes ____ under anaerobic conditions

  • Animals produce ____ under anaerobic conditions

Answers


Quick quiz1

QUICK QUIZ

Back to menu

  • Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria

  • Glucose is broken down into pyruvate during glycolysis

  • pyruvate is small enough to enter the mitochondrion

  • enzymesin the matrix catalyse the reactions of the Krebs cycle

  • The inner mitochondrial membrane is folded to increase surface area

  • NAD and FAD carry electrons to the electron transport chain

  • ATP is the universal energy carrier

  • Most ATP is produced in the electron transport chain stage

  • aerobic respiration yields 34-38 ATP

  • anaerobicrespiration occurs in the absence of sufficient oxygen

  • Yeast undergoes fermentation under anaerobic conditions

  • Animals produce lactic acid under anaerobic conditions


Exercise

Exercise

Back to menu

  • Workbook pp 67-72, all questions

  • Pathfinder p45 q5

  • READING

  • Pathfinder p43

  • Excellence in Biology 126-130


Videos

Videos

Back to menu

These videos contain more detail than you need, but the basics are very good!

  • http://www.5min.com/Video/Glycolysis-and-the-Krebs-Cycle-150946257 (summary, Wolfe, 8 min)

  • http://www.5min.com/Video/Oxidative-Phosphorylation-150626566 (ATP, 10min)

  • http://www.articlesbase.com/videos/5min/150626157(Glycolysis, 14min)


Respiration

proteins

polysaccharides

lipids

amino acids

monosaccharides

fatty acids + glycerol

pyruvate

acetyl coA

Krebs

NADH2 + FADH2

wastes - CO2 + H2O


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