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Chapter 35-2. Nervous System. Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I. Section 35-1. Nervous System. Integumentary System. Skeletal System. Muscular System. Circulatory System. Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I. Section 35-1. Nervous System. Integumentary System. Skeletal System.

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chapter 35 2

Chapter 35-2

Nervous System

slide2

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide3

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide4

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide5

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide6

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part I

Section 35-1

Nervous System

Integumentary System

Skeletal System

Muscular System

Circulatory System

slide7

Figure 35-2 Human Organ Systems Part 2

Section 35-1

Respiratory System

Digestive System

Excretory System

Endocrine System

Reproductive System

Lymphatic/Immune Systems

slide8

35-2: The Nervous System

The Nervous System

____________________ = (aka: communication system) consists of specialized cells that receive and relay information (by way of electrical signals) about activities within the body and monitors and responds to internal and external changes.

  • The Neuron
  • A. Neuron =

Specialized cells, making up the nervous system, that carry impulses (messages)

the neuron
The _____________ part of the neuron is the ___________________.

a) Most metabolic activity occurs here.

__________: carry impulses ___________ the cell body.

a) May be ________ dendrites attached to one cell body

_________: The long fiber that carries impulses (messages) _________ from the cell body.

a) Usually only ____ axon that is very__________.

The Neuron!!

largest

cell body

Dendrites

towards

many

Axon

away

1

long

slide10

Anatomy of a neuron:

Cell body: consists of nucleus and contents of the cytoplasm. Sites for ATP and Protein Production.

Axon: Carries impulses away from cell body

Axon Terminals: end at another neuron

Dendrite: Receiver of impulses from the environment. Carries impulses toward cell body.

slide11

myelin

exposed

nodes

b) Some axons are covered by a _____________

sheath.

1. Some parts of the axons are left ____________

and are called __________.

2. A nerve impulse will _________ from node to

node, making it _____________________.(Important

for larger animals)

3. As you use a neural pathway ____________,

myelin can develop, making it easier to

____________ information quicker.

jump

travel faster

repeatedly

retrieve

slide13

The electrical signals used for communication

B. Impulses =

C. 3 types of neurons (classified according to the direction of the impulse)

1. sensory neurons = carry impulses from

____________ to the

2. motor neurons = carry impulses from the _____________________ to

_____________________.

3. interneurons = connect ___________

______________

brain and spinal cord

Sense organs

brain and spinal cord

muscles and glands

sensory and

motor neurons

slide16

Nerve impulses rely on movement of (+) charged ions.

II. The Nerve Impulse

A. The Resting Neuron

1. Resting= ______ transmitting an _________.

2. Resting Potential:

a) There are more ______ ions inside the nerve cell than outside the cell.

b) There are more ____ ions outside the cell than inside the nerve cell.

** The ____________ in charge is maintained by

_________________________ which uses _________.

not

impulse

K+

Na+

difference

active transport

ATP

slide17

Na+/K+ pump

active

transport

out

into

c) A ______________________ uses _______ __________ to pump Na+ ions ___ of the cell and K+ ions _____ the cell.

d) Protein channels in the cell membrane allow

________ to leak out of the cell while keeping _________ from moving into the cell.

e) The ________ that _________leave the cell also have a ____________ charge.

f) Overall, the ________ of the cell is ________, and the outside of the cell is ____________.

K+ ions

Na+ ions

proteins

cannot

negative

inside

negative

positive

slide19

Neuron at resting potential ___________= Negative (compared to the outside) inside the cell and positive outside

(polarized)

Na +

Na +

Outside

Na +

Na +

Na +

Na +

Na +

Na +

-

-

K +

-

K +

-

-

-

AXON

-

K +

-

K +

-

-

K +

Inside

-

Na +

Na +

Na +

Na +

Na +

Outside

Na +

Na +

Na +

Na +

slide25

at resting potential

stimulus

B. The Moving Impulse

1. A neuron stays __________________ until it

receives a ______________.

a) An impulse begins when a neuron is

stimulated by the __________________ or

_______________________.

b) The impulse allows ______ to move across

the membrane.

c) The impulse moves like a chain reaction down

__________.

environment

another neuron

ions

the axon

slide26

depolarized

repolarized

2. During an impulse, the membrane is ________________(+ inside, -outside) and ________________(-inside, +outside).

a) The reversal of charges is known as an _______________

b) Action potentials move at 150 meters/second.

action potential

slide27

reversal of charges

Na+ channel

C. The Action Potential (______________________)

1. Depolarization (+ inside, - outside)

a) A stimulus causes a gate in the __________________ to open.

b) Because the _________________ of Na+ is

higher __________ the membrane, the sodium flows ________ the cell. (Now the inside becomes more + compared to the outside)

2. Repolarization (-inside, +outside)

a) Depolarization causes the ___________ gate to immediately_________.

b) ______ diffuses _______ of the neuron.

concentration

outside

into

K+ channel

open

K+

out

slide28

3. Returning to Resting Potential

a) The _____________ actively (ATP) pumps Na+ ___ of the neuron and K+ ______ the neuron.

b) This ______________ the _________ ion distribution of the __________ neuron.

D. Propagation of the Impulse

1. Nerve impulses are ____________________.

They can occur at any point on the membrane and cause an impulse at the next point (like dominoes)

2. Unlike dominoes, impulses move in ______

__________ only because the membrane behind the impulse has a brief period where the __________________________.

Na+/K+ pump

out

into

reestablishes

initial

resting

self-propagating

one

direction

sodium gates will not open

slide29

impulse

same

minimum

E. Threshold

1. The strength of an ____________ is always the ___________.

Threshold: The ________ level of stimulus that is required to _________ a neuron.

2. The ____________________ principle says that either a stimulus will be strong enough to produce an _________ or it will not.

activate

all-or-none

impulse

an action potential
An Action Potential
  • http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/matthews/channel.html
  • Voltage gated channels & Proteins:

http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072437316/student_view0/chapter45/animations.html#

slide31

III. The synapse (space between neurons)

A. Axons end in

B. Axon terminals contain

C. Axon terminals make contact with

D. Receptors =

E. Effectors =

small swellings calledaxon terminals

vesiclesfilled with chemicals calledneurotransmitters.

receptors

oreffectorsin an area called asynapse.

Specialsensory neuronsin sense organs that receivestimulifrom theexternal environment.

Muscles or glands that bring about a coordinated response

slide32

Figure 35-8 The Synapse

We know how impulses move down a neuron, but how does the signal travel from one neuron to another?

Section 35-2

Direction of Impulse

Dendrite of adjacent neuron

Axon

Receptor

Vesicle

Axon terminal

Synaptic cleft

Neurotransmitter

slide33

When an impulse arrives at an axon terminal _______________________________

  • b. Through exocytosis, _______________________
  • __________________________________
  • The neurotransmitters attach to ___________ on the adjacent neuron _____________________________
  • _____________________.
  • d. Na+ ions diffuse into the adjacent cell. If threshold is met, depolarization will occur and the impulse will continue.
  • Once the neurotransmitter is released from the receptor sites, _____________________________________
  • _______________________________________
  • ________________________

vesicles fuse with the membrane

are released into the synaptic gap/cleft

neurotransmitters

receptors

changing the permeability of the membrane

enzymes break the molecules down or they are reabsorbed by the axon terminals to be recycled.

slide35

35-3 Divisions of the Nervous System

  • Neurons working together forms a complicated communication system known as the Nervous System.
  • Two major divisions of the Nervous System
    • Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • a. _________ messages
    • b. Processes ____________.
    • c. Analyzes ____________.
    • d. Consists of : 1) _______________

Relays

information

information

Brain

slide36

Impulses

originate

100 billion

a) The brain: _____________ flow to the brain and

is where many impulses ______________.

b) Made up of over _________________ neurons.

c) The human brain weighs _____ kilograms.

1.4

slide37

rest of the

brain

body

2) The Spinal Cord

a) Main Communication link between the

__________ and the _______________

___________.

b) Carries _______________ of cells at

once.

c) _________ are processed ___________ in the spinal cord.

thousands

Reflexes

directly

slide38

2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

a. contains _______________________

________________________________

b. Includes: _______________________

_______________________

c. Ganglia: ________________________

___________

all the nerves that carry information to and from the CNS

Cranial and spinal nerves and Ganglia

collection of nerve cell bodies

slide39

Central nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

Sensory nerves

Motor nerves

Somatic nervous system

Autonomic nervous system

Parasympathetic nervous system

Sympathetic nervous system

The Divisions of the Nervous System

Concept Map

Section 35-3

The Nervous System

is divided into

which consists of

that make up

which is divided into

slide40

Peripheral Nervous System

    • Divided into two divisions:
    • Sensory Division:
    • Motor Division:

Sensory division and motor division

Transmits impulses from sense organs (ie. Eyes, ears, taste buds) to central nervous system

Basically: Sense organs  CNS

Transmits impulses from central nervous system to muscles or glands (effectors)

Basically: CNS  Effectors

slide41

Motor Division is divided into two systems

    • _______________________
      • Regulates
      • Regulates

Somatic Nervous System

conscious activities; such as the movement of skeletal muscles

reflexes controlled by sensory neurons, motor neurons, and effectors producing a reflex arc

reflex arc

Example: You step on tack-Stimulus

  • The tack stimulates sensory receptors on the skin
  • The sensory receptors stimulate a sensory neuron
  • The sensory neuron sends an impulse to an interneuron in the spinal cord
  • A response signal is sent to a motor neuron
  • The motor neuron stimulates an effector which makes you hand pull away
Reflex Arc

3

2

4

5

1

slide43

Autonomic Nervous System

2. __________________________

a. regulates

b. The ANS is subdivided into 2 parts that have opposite effects on the organs they control.

1. Sympathetic Nervous System: Fight or Flight

2. Parasympathetic Nervous System: Rest and Digest

Automatic or involuntary activities (ie. Heart, lungs, digestion,etc)

slide44

Dilates pupil

Constricts pupil

Sympathetic Nervous System

Parasympathetic Nervous System

Stimulates saliva production

Inhibits saliva production

Constricts bronchi

Dilates bronchi

Slows down heart rate

Speeds up heart rate

Stimulates bile production

Stimulates glucose production

Stimulates peristalsis

Inhibits peristalsis

Inhibits urination

Stimulates urination

slide47

Figure 35-7 An Impulse

Section 35-2

Action Potential

At rest.

As the action potential passes, potassium gates open, allowing K+ ions to flow out.

Action Potential

Action Potential

The action potential continues to move along the axon in the direction of the nerve impulse.

At the leading edge of the impulse, the sodium gates open. The membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ ions and an action potential occurs.

slide48

Figure 35-7 An Impulse

Section 35-2

Action Potential

At rest.

As the action potential passes, potassium gates open, allowing K+ ions to flow out.

Action Potential

At the leading edge of the impulse, the sodium gates open. The membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ ions and an action potential occurs.

The action potential continues to move along the axon in the direction of the nerve impulse.

slide49

Figure 35-7 An Impulse

Section 35-2

Action Potential

As the action potential passes, potassium gates open, allowing K+ ions to flow out.

At rest.

Action Potential

The action potential continues to move along the axon in the direction of the nerve impulse.

At the leading edge of the impulse, the sodium gates open. The membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ ions and an action potential occurs.

slide50

Figure 35-7 An Impulse

Section 35-2

Action Potential

As the action potential passes, potassium gates open, allowing K+ ions to flow out.

At rest.

Action Potential

The action potential continues to move along the axon in the direction of the nerve impulse.

At the leading edge of the impulse, the sodium gates open. The membrane becomes more permeable to Na+ ions and an action potential occurs.

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