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Introduction to MATLAB I. MATLAB. MATLAB is a program for doing numerical computation. It was originally designed for solving linear algebra type problems using matrices. It’s name is derived from MATrix LABoratory.

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Matlab
MATLAB

  • MATLAB is a program for doing numerical computation. It was originally designed for solving linear algebra type problems using matrices. It’s name is derived from MATrix LABoratory.

  • MATLAB has since been expanded and now has built-in functions for solving problems requiring data analysis, signal processing, optimization, and several other types of scientific computations. It also contains functions for 2-D and 3-D graphics and animation.


Software development philosophy
Software Development Philosophy

  • Major software characteristics:

    • matrix-based numeric computation

    • high-level programming language

    • graphics & visualization

    • toolboxes provide application-specific functionality

    • BASIC-like syntax, with elements from C, GUI IDE

    • basic data type: 2- or 3-dimensional floating-point matrix

    • most operators and functions work on entire matrices

  • Open & extensible system architecture

  • Interfaces to other systems

    • Custom C, Fortran

    • Extensive data I/O facility


Availability and d ocumentation
Availability and Documentation

  • Installed on:

    • Windows (or Linux)

  • Full documentation available online in HTML and PDF:

    • Start Matlab then type helpdesk

    • http://www.mathworks.com/access/helpdesk/help/helpdesk.html

  • Read “Getting Started” section of the MATLAB manual

  • Use the command help function-name


Matlab windows
MATLAB Windows

  • Command Window

    • enter commands and data

    • print results

  • Graphics Window

    • display plots and graphs

  • Edit Window

    • create and modify m-files


Matlab1
MATLAB

  • The MATLAB environment is command oriented somewhat like UNIX. A prompt appears on the screen and a MATLAB statement can be entered. When the <ENTER> key is pressed, the statement is executed, and another prompt appears.

  • If a statement is terminated with a semicolon ( ; ), no results will be displayed. Otherwise results will appear before the next prompt.

  • The following slide is the text from a MATLAB screen.


Matlab2
MATLAB

To get started, type one of these commands: helpwin, helpdesk, or demo

» a=5;

» b=a/2

b =

2.5000

»


Matlab variable names
MATLAB Variable Names

  • Variable names ARE case sensitive

  • Variable names can contain up to 63 characters (as of MATLAB 6.5 and newer)

  • Variable names must start with a letter followed by letters, digits, and underscores.


Matlab special variables
MATLAB Special Variables

ans Default variable name for results

pi Value of 

eps Smallest incremental number

inf Infinity

NaN Not a number e.g. 0/0

i and j i = j = square root of -1

realmin The smallest usable positive real number

realmax The largest usable positive real number


Matlab math assignment operators
MATLAB Math & Assignment Operators

Power ^ or .^ a^b or a.^b

Multiplication * or .* a*b or a.*b

Division / or ./ a/b or a./b

or \ or .\ b\a or b.\a

NOTE: 56/8 = 8\56

- (unary) + (unary)

Addition + a + b

Subtraction - a - b

Assignment = a = b (assign b to a)


Other matlab symbols
Other MATLAB symbols

>> prompt

. . . continue statement on next line

, separate statements and data

% start comment which ends at end of line

; (1) suppress output

(2) used as a row separator in a matrix

: specify range


Matlab matrices
MATLAB Matrices

  • MATLAB treats all variables as matrices. For our purposes a matrix can be thought of as an array, in fact, that is how it is stored.

  • Vectors are special forms of matrices and contain only one row OR one column.

  • Scalars are matrices with only one row AND one column


Matlab matrices1
MATLAB Matrices

  • A matrix with only one row AND one column is a scalar. A scalar can be created in MATLAB as follows:

    » a_value=23

    a_value =

    23


Matlab matrices2
MATLAB Matrices

  • A matrix with only one row is called a row vector. A row vector can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the commas):

    » rowvec = [12 , 14 , 63]

    rowvec =

    12 14 63


Matlab matrices3
MATLAB Matrices

  • A matrix with only one column is called a column vector. A column vector can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the semicolons):

    » colvec = [13 ; 45 ; -2]

    colvec =

    13

    45

    -2


Matlab matrices4
MATLAB Matrices

  • A matrix can be created in MATLAB as follows (note the commas AND semicolons):

    » matrix = [1 , 2 , 3 ; 4 , 5 ,6 ; 7 , 8 , 9]

    matrix =

    1 2 3

    4 5 6

    7 8 9


Extracting a sub matrix
Extracting a Sub-Matrix

  • A portion of a matrix can be extracted and stored in a smaller matrix by specifying the names of both matrices and the rows and columns to extract. The syntax is:

    sub_matrix = matrix ( r1 : r2 , c1 : c2 ) ;

    where r1 and r2 specify the beginning and ending rows and c1 and c2 specify the beginning and ending columns to be extracted to make the new matrix.


Matlab matrices5

A column vector can be extracted from a matrix. As an example we create a matrix below:

» matrix=[1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9]

matrix =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Here we extract column 2 of the matrix and make a column vector:

» col_two=matrix( : , 2)

col_two =

2

5

8

MATLAB Matrices


Matlab matrices6

A row vector can be extracted from a matrix. As an example we create a matrix below:

» matrix=[1,2,3;4,5,6;7,8,9]

matrix =

1 2 3

4 5 6

7 8 9

Here we extract row 2 of the matrix and make a row vector. Note that the 2:2 specifies the second row and the 1:3 specifies which columns of the row.

» rowvec=matrix(2 : 2 , 1 : 3)

rowvec =

4 5 6

MATLAB Matrices


Reading data from files
Reading Data from files we create a matrix below:

  • MATLAB supports reading an entire file and creating a matrix of the data with one statement.

    >> load mydata.dat; % loads file into matrix.

    % The matrix may be a scalar, a vector, or a

    % matrix with multiple rows and columns. The

    % matrix will be named mydata.

    >> size (mydata) % size will return the number

    % of rows and number of

    % columns in the matrix

    >> length (myvector) % length will return the total

    % no. of elements in myvector


Plotting with matlab
Plotting with MATLAB we create a matrix below:

  • MATLAB will plot one vector vs. another. The first one will be treated as the abscissa (or x) vector and the second as the ordinate (or y) vector. The vectors have to be the same length.

  • MATLAB will also plot a vector vs. its own index. The index will be treated as the abscissa vector. Given a vector “time” and a vector “dist” we could say:

    >> plot (time, dist) % plotting versus time

    >> plot (dist) % plotting versus index


Plotting with matlab1
Plotting with MATLAB we create a matrix below:

  • There are commands in MATLAB to "annotate" a plot to put on axis labels, titles, and legends. For example:

    >> % To put a label on the axes we would use:

    >> xlabel ('X-axis label')

    >> ylabel ('Y-axis label')

    >> % To put a title on the plot, we would use:

    >> title ('Title of my plot')


Plotting with matlab2
Plotting with MATLAB we create a matrix below:

  • Vectors may be extracted from matrices. Normally, we wish to plot one column vs. another. If we have a matrix “mydata” with two columns, we can obtain the columns as a vectors with the assignments as follows:

    >> first_vector = mydata ( : , 1) ; % First column

    >> second_vector = mydata ( : , 2) ; % Second one

    >> % and we can plot the data

    >> plot ( first_vector , second_vector )


Some useful matlab commands
Some Useful MATLAB commands we create a matrix below:

  • who List known variables

  • whos List known variables plus their size

  • help Ex: >> help sqrt Help on using sqrt

  • lookfor Ex: >> lookfor sqrt Search for

    keyword sqrt in m-files

  • what Ex:>> what a: List MATLAB files in a:

  • clear Clear all variables from work space

  • clear x y Clear variables x and y from work space

  • clc Clear the command window


Some useful matlab commands1
Some Useful MATLAB commands we create a matrix below:

  • what List all m-files in current directory

  • dir List all files in current directory

  • ls Same as dir

  • type test Display test.m in command window

  • delete test Delete test.m

  • cd a: Change directory to a:

  • chdir a: Same as cd

  • pwd Show current directory

  • which test Display current directory path to test.m

  • why In case you ever needed a reason


Matlab relational operators
MATLAB Relational Operators we create a matrix below:

  • MATLAB supports six relational operators.

    Less Than <

    Less Than or Equal <=

    Greater Than >

    Greater Than or Equal >=

    Equal To ==

    Not Equal To ~=


Matlab logical operators
MATLAB Logical Operators we create a matrix below:

  • MATLAB supports three logical operators.

    not ~ % highest precedence

    and & % equal precedence with or

    or | % equal precedence with and


Matlab logical functions
MATLAB Logical Functions we create a matrix below:

  • MATLAB also supports some logical functions.

    xor (exclusive or) Ex: xor (a, b)

    Where a and b are logical expressions. The xor operator evaluates to true if and only if one expression is true and the other is false. True is returned as 1, false as 0.

    any (x) returns 1 if any element of x is nonzero

    all (x) returns 1 if all elements of x are nonzero

    isnan (x) returns 1 at each NaN in x

    isinf (x) returns 1 at each infinity in x

    finite (x) returns 1 at each finite value in x


Matlab display formats
MATLAB Display formats we create a matrix below:

  • MATLAB supports 8 formats for outputting numerical results.

    format long 16 digits

    format short e 5 digits plus exponent

    format long e 16 digits plus exponent

    format hex hexadecimal

    format bank two decimal digits

    format + positive, negative or zero

    format rat rational number (215/6)

    format short default display


Matlab selection structures
Matlab Selection Structures we create a matrix below:

  • An if - elseif - else structure in MATLAB.

    Note that elseif is one word.

    if expression1% is true

    % execute these commands

    elseif expression2% is true

    % execute these commands

    else % the default

    % execute these commands

    end


Matlab repetition structures
MATLAB Repetition Structures we create a matrix below:

  • A for loop in MATLAB for x = array

    for x = 1: 0.5 : 10

    % execute these commands

    end

  • A while loop in MATLAB while expression

    while x <= 10

    % execute these commands

    end


Scalar matrix addition
Scalar - Matrix Addition we create a matrix below:

» a=3;

» b=[1, 2, 3;4, 5, 6]

b =

1 2 3

4 5 6

» c= b+a % Add a to each element of b

c =

4 5 6

7 8 9


Scalar matrix subtraction
Scalar - Matrix Subtraction we create a matrix below:

» a=3;

» b=[1, 2, 3;4, 5, 6]

b =

1 2 3

4 5 6

» c = b - a %Subtract a from each element of b

c =

-2 -1 0

1 2 3


Scalar matrix multiplication
Scalar - Matrix Multiplication we create a matrix below:

» a=3;

» b=[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6]

b =

1 2 3

4 5 6

» c = a * b % Multiply each element of b by a

c =

3 6 9

12 15 18


Scalar matrix division
Scalar - Matrix Division we create a matrix below:

» a=3;

» b=[1, 2, 3; 4, 5, 6]

b =

1 2 3

4 5 6

» c = b / a % Divide each element of b by a

c =

0.3333 0.6667 1.0000

1.3333 1.6667 2.0000


Calculations at the command line
Calculations at the Command Line we create a matrix below:

Assigning Variables

  • a = 2;

  • b = 5;

  • a^b

  • ans =

  • 32

  • x = 5/2*pi;

  • y = sin(x)

  • y =

  • 1

  • z = asin(y)

  • z =

  • 1.5708

Semicolon suppresses screen output

Results assigned to “ans” if name not given

Use parentheses ( ) for function inputs

Numbers stored in double-precision floating point format


Matlab matrices 1

In MATLAB, a matrix is a rectangular array of numbers we create a matrix below:

Scalars: 1-by-1 matrices

Vectors: matrices with only one row or column

Matrix elements can consist either of numbers (numeric arrays) or characters (string arrays)

Colon generates number sequence:

>> 11:14

ans =

11 12 13 14

Specify step size with second colon:

>> 1:3:12

ans =

1 4 7 10

MATLAB matrices (1)


Matlab matrices 2

Columns we create a matrix below:

(n)

1 2 3 4 5

A (2,4)

1

2

Rows (m) 3

4

5

A (17)

MATLAB matrices (2)

A =

1 6 11 16 21

2 7 12 17 22

3 8 13 18 23

4 9 14 19 24

5 10 15 20 25

4

10

1

6

2

8

1.2

9

4

25

7.2

5

7

1

11

0

0.5

4

5

56

23

83

13

0

10

Rectangular Matrix:

Scalar: 1-by-1 array

Vector:m-by-1 array

1-by-n array

Matrix: m-by-n array

Matrix elements can be EITHER numbers OR characters


Matlab matrices 3
MATLAB matrices (3) we create a matrix below:

Row separator:

semicolon (;)

Column separator:

space / comma (,)

Use square brackets [ ]

  • a=[1 2;3 4]

  • a =

  • 1 2

  • 3 4

  • b=[-2.8, sqrt(-7), (3+5+6)*3/4]

  • b =

  • -2.8000 0 + 2.6458i 10.5000

  • b(2,5) = 23

  • b =

  • -2.8000 0 + 2.6458i 10.5000 0 0

  • 0 0 0 0 23.0000

Matrices must

be rectangular. (Undefined elements set to zero)

Any MATLAB expression can be entered as a matrix element


Matlab matrices 4
MATLAB matrices (4) we create a matrix below:

Array Subscripting / Indexing

1 2 3 4 5

A =

1 6 11 16 21

2 7 12 17 22

3 8 13 18 23

4 9 14 19 24

5 10 15 20 25

4

10

1

6

2

1

2

3

4

5

8

1.2

9

4

25

A(1:5,5)

A(:,5)

A(21:25)

A(1:end,end)

A(:,end)

A(21:end)’

7.2

5

7

1

11

0

0.5

4

5

56

A(3,1)

A(3)

23

83

13

0

10

A(4:5,2:3)

A([9 14;10 15])

  • Use () parentheses to specify index

  • colon operator (:) specifies range / ALL

  • [ ] to create matrix of index subscripts

  • 'end' specifies maximum index value


Matrices linear algebra
Matrices & Linear Algebra we create a matrix below:

  • help ops

  • help matfun


Matrix multiplication
Matrix Multiplication we create a matrix below:

  • Inner dimensions must be equal

  • Dimension of resulting matrix = outermost dimensions of multiplied matrices

  • Resulting elements = dot product of the rows of the 1st matrix with the columns of the 2nd matrix

  • a = [1 2 3 4; 5 6 7 8];

  • b = ones(4,3);

  • c = a*b

  • c =

  • 10 10 10

  • 26 26 26

[2x4]

[4x3]

[2x4]*[4x3] [2x3]

a(2nd row).b(3rd column)


Matrix multiplication1
Matrix Multiplication we create a matrix below:

X = X11 X12

X21 X22

Y = Y11 Y12

Y21 Y22

Then:

X*Y = Xrow1.Ycol1 Xrow1.Ycol2

Xrow2.Ycol1 Xrow2.Ycol2

= (X11*Y11)+(X12*Y21) (X11*Y12)+(X12*Y22)

(X21*Y11)+(X22*Y21) (X21*Y12)+(X22*Y22)


Matrix transpose
Matrix Transpose we create a matrix below:


Example solving equations using left division
Example: Solving Equations we create a matrix below:using “Left Division”

  • Solve this set of simultaneous equations:

  • A = [-1 1 2; 3 -1 1;-1 3 4];

  • b = [2;6;4];

  • x = inv(A)*b%If “A” is a square matrix

  • x =

  • 1.0000

  • -1.0000

  • 2.0000

  • x = A\b%underdetermined and overdetermined system

  • x =

  • 1.0000 %x1

  • -1.0000 %x2

  • 2.0000 %x3

-x1 + x2 + 2x3 = 2

3x1 - x2 + x3 = 6

-x1 + 3x2 + 4x3 = 4


Matlab functions
Matlab Functions we create a matrix below:

  • % Matlab Functions

  • % functions(a,x,y);

  • % a = 1 for dividing, a = 2 for multiplication,

  • % a = 3 for adding, a = 4 for subtraction

  • % calculations x/y , x*y , x-y , x+y

  • function [s] = functions_all(a,x,y)

  • if a==1;

  • s=x/y;

  • elseif a==2

  • s=x*y;

  • elseif a==3

  • s=x+y;

  • elseif a==4

  • s=x-y;

  • else

  • disp('a should be 1-2-3-4 ');

  • disp(' please try again ');

  • end


Built in functions
Built-in Functions we create a matrix below:

  • Sqrt( ), abs( ), sin( ), cos( ), exp( ), tanh( ), acos( ), log( ), log10( ), etc.

  • These operators are vectorized


Built in functions1
Built-in Functions we create a matrix below:

  • Certain functions, such as exponential and square root, have matrix definition also

  • Use “help expm” and “help sqrtm” for details

>> A = [1 3 5; 2 4 6; -3 2 -1]

A =

1 3 5

2 4 6

-3 2 -1

>> B = sqrt(A)

B =

1.0000 1.7321 2.2361

1.4142 2.0000 2.4495

0 + 1.7321i 1.4142 0 + 1.0000i

>> C = sqrtm(A)

C =

2.1045 + 0.0000i 0.1536 - 0.0000i 1.8023 + 0.0000i

1.7141 - 0.0000i 1.1473 + 0.0000i 1.7446 + 0.0000i

-2.0484 + 0.0000i 1.3874 + 0.0000i 0.5210 - 0.0000i


Matlab graphics
MATLAB Graphics we create a matrix below:

  • One of the best things about MATLAB is interactive graphics

  • “plot” is the one you will be using most often

  • Many other 3D plotting functions -- plot3, mesh, surfc, etc.

  • Use “help plot” for plotting options

  • To get a new figure, use “figure”

  • logarithmic plots available using semilogx, semilogy and loglog


Plotting commands
Plotting Commands we create a matrix below:

  • plot(x,y) defaults to a blue line

  • plot(x,y,’ro’) uses red circles

  • plot(x,y,’m*’) uses magenta asterisks

  • If you want to put two plots on the same graph, use “hold on”

  • plot(a,b,’r:’) (red dotted line)

  • hold on

  • plot(a,c,’ko’) (black circles)


Plotting commands1
Plotting Commands we create a matrix below:

plot (x, y) plot(x1, y1, x2, y2)

plot (x, y, ‘colorsymbolline style’)

» x = linspace(0, 2*pi);

» y = sin (2.*x);

» z = cos (0.5*x);

» plot (x, y)

» plot (x, y, x, z)

» figure (2)

» plot (x, y, 'r o -'); grid on

» hold on

» plot (x, z, 'b * :')

figure or figure (#) : open a figure

(red, circle, solid line)

(blue, star, dotted line)


Graphics commands
Graphics Commands we create a matrix below:

  • Axis, Labels, and Title

xlabel ( label )ylabel ( label )title ( title of the plot )text (x_location, y_location, text )axis ([ x_min x_max y_min y_max ])

» xlabel (Time)

» ylabel (Temperature)

» title (Temperature Record : 1900 - 2000)

» text (17, 120, Record High )

» text (85, -40, Record Low )

» axis ([0 100 -50 140])» hold off

  - text string


2 d plotting
2-D Plotting we create a matrix below:

TITLE

LEGEND

TEXT

or

GTEXT

YLABEL

CURVES

XLABEL


2 d plotting1
2-D Plotting we create a matrix below:

  • x = 0:.1:2*pi;

  • y1 = sin(x);

  • plot(x,y1,'b')

  • grid on

  • hold on

  • y2 = exp(-x);

  • plot(x,y2,'r:*')


» x=0:0.1:5; we create a matrix below:

» y=2*x.^3-12*x.^2+8*x-6;

» H=plot(x,y,'b',x,y,'r*');

» set(H,'LineWidth',3,'MarkerSize',12)

» xlabel('x'); ylabel('y');

» title('f(x)=2x^3-12x^2+8x-6');

» print -djpeg075 poly.jpg

Adjust line thickness, font size, marker size, etc.

element-by-element operations x.^n


» x=0:0.1:10; we create a matrix below:

» y=sin(2.*pi*x)+cos(pi*x);

» H1=plot(x,y,'m'); set(H1,'LineWidth',3); hold on;

» H2=plot(x,y,'bO'); set(H2,'LineWidth',3,'MarkerSize',10); hold off;

» xlabel('x'); ylabel('y');

» title('y = sin(2\pix)+cos(\pix)');

» print -djpeg075 function.jpg


» x=0:0.1:3; y1=exp(-x); y2=sqrt(x); we create a matrix below:

» H=plot(x,y1,'b-',x,y2,'r--');

» set(H,'LineWidth',3)

» xlabel('x'); ylabel('y'); title('MATLAB Plots');

» H1=text(1.8,0.2,'exp(-x)'); set(H1,'FontSize',18);

» H2=text(1.8,1.3,'sqrt(x)'); set(H2,'FontSize',18);


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