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# Chapter 6 - Interacting Objects: Newton’s Lab - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapter 6 - Interacting Objects: Newton’s Lab. 6.1 The Starting Point: Newton’s Lab. Exercise 6.1. Right Click on space. Exercise 6.2. Sun and Planet. Exercise 6.2. Sun and Two Planets. Exercise 6.2. Sun, Planet, and Moon. Exercise 6.3. Exercise 6.4. Exercise 6.5 Space Class.

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Chapter 6 - Interacting Objects: Newton’s Lab

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## Chapter 6 - Interacting Objects: Newton’s Lab

### Exercise 6.1

Right Click on space

Sun and Planet

### Exercise 6.2

Sun and Two Planets

### Exercise 6.2

Sun, Planet, and Moon

### Exercise 6.5 Space Class

import greenfoot.*; // (World, Actor, GreenfootImage, Greenfoot and MouseInfo)

import java.awt.Color;

/**

* Space. The final frontier.

*

* @author Michael Kolling

* @version 1.0

*/

public class Space extends World

{

### Exercise 6.5 Space Constructor

/**

* Create space.

*/

public Space()

{

super(960, 620, 1);

// Uncomment one of the following method calls

// if you want the objects created automatically:

//sunAndPlanet();

//sunAndTwoPlanets();

//sunPlanetMoon();

}

### Exercise 6.5 SunAndPlanet ()

/**

* Set up the universe with a sun and a planet.

*/

public void sunAndPlanet()

{

removeAllObjects();

addObject (new Body (50, 240.0, new Vector(270, 0.03), new Color(255, 216, 0)), 460, 270);

addObject (new Body (20, 4.2, new Vector(90, 2.2), new Color(0, 124, 196)), 695, 260);

}

### Exercise 6.5 sunAndTwoPlanets ()

/**

* Set up the universe with a sun and two planets.

*/

public void sunAndTwoPlanets()

{

removeAllObjects();

addObject (new Body (50, 240.0, new Vector(270, 0.0), new Color(255, 216, 0)), 460, 310);

addObject (new Body (20, 4.2, new Vector(90, 2.2), new Color(0, 124, 196)), 695, 300);

addObject (new Body (24, 4.6, new Vector(270, 1.8), new Color(248, 160, 86)), 180, 290);

}

### Exercise 6.5 sunPlanetMoon ()

/**

* Set up the universe with a sun, a planet, and a moon.

*/

public void sunPlanetMoon()

{

removeAllObjects();

addObject (new Body (50, 240.0, new Vector(270, 0.0), new Color(255, 216, 0)), 460, 270);

addObject (new Body (20, 4.2, new Vector(90, 2.2), new Color(0, 124, 196)), 720, 260);

addObject (new Body (5, 0.8, new Vector(90, 3.25), new Color(240, 220, 96)), 748, 260);

}

### Exercise 6.5 removeAllObjects ()

/**

* Remove all objects currently in the world.

*/

private void removeAllObjects()

{

removeObjects (getObjects(Actor.class));

}

### 6.2 Helper Classes: SmoothMover and Vector

http://www.greenfoot.org/programming/classes.html

• Some Helper Classes

• Counter

• Explosion

• Mover

• Plotter

• Rotator

• Slider

• Vector

• Wander

### SmoothMover

SmoothMover can, for example, have the x-coordinate 12.3. If we now move this actor along the x-coordinate in increments of 0.6, its successive locations will be

12.3, 12.9, 13.5, 14.1, 14.7, 15.3, 15.9, 16.5, 17.1, . . .

12, 13, 14, 14, 15, 15, 16, 17, 17, . . .

and so on. We will see the actor on screen at rounded x-coordinates.

### Abstract Classes

public abstract class SmoothMover extends Actor

{

private Vector movement;

private double exactX;

private double exactY;

public SmoothMover()

{

this(new Vector());

}

/**

* Create new thing initialised with given speed.

*/

public SmoothMover(Vector movement)

{

this.movement = movement;

}

Cannot Create Objects for This Class, No Constructor

accelerate

getExactX

getExactY

getMovement

getSpeed

move

setLocation

setLocation

### Exercise 6.7

/**

* Set the location using exact (double) co-ordinates.

*/

public void setLocation(double x, double y)

{

exactX = x;

exactY = y;

super.setLocation((int) x, (int) y);

}

/**

* Set the location of this actor. Redefinition of the standard Greenfoot

* method to make sure the exact co-ordinates are updated in sync.

*/

public void setLocation(int x, int y)

{

exactX = x;

exactY = y;

super.setLocation(x, y);

}

Can have the same name, as long as their parameters are different. This means that the methods (or constructors) have different signatures.

It is perfectly legal to have two methods that have the same name, as long as their parameter lists are different. This is called Overloading (The name of the method is Overloaded - it refers to more than one method.)

### Vectors

dy

dx

Polar Representation = length and direction

Cartesian Representation = dx and dy

### Exercise 6.9

Which methods can be called thru the object’s menu?

Which methods cannot?

### Exercise 6.9

public abstract class SmoothMover extends Actor

{

private Vector movement;

private double exactX;

private double exactY;

public SmoothMover()

{

this(new Vector());

}

/**

* Create new thing initialised with given speed.

*/

public SmoothMover(Vector movement)

{

this.movement = movement;

}

smoothMover is not Callable since it is declared as an Abstract Class

### Exercise 6.10

/**

* Construct a Body with default size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body()

{

this (20, 300, new Vector(0, 1.0), defaultColor);

}

/**

* Construct a Body with a specified size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body(int size, double mass, Vector movement, Color color)

{

this.mass = mass;

GreenfootImage image = new GreenfootImage (size, size);

image.setColor (color);

image.fillOval (0, 0, size-1, size-1);

setImage (image);

}

### 6.3 The Existing Body Class

A constructor without any parameters is also called a Default Constructor

The Body class has two constructors. One constructor has no parameters and the other constructor has four parameters. The default constructor makes it easy for us to create bodies interactively without having to specify all the details.

### Code 6.1

public class Body extends SmoothMover

{

/**

* Construct a Body with default size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body()

{

this (20, 300, new Vector(0, 1.0), defaultColor);

}

/**

* Construct a Body with a specified size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body(int size, double mass, Vector movement, Color color)

{

this.mass = mass;

GreenfootImage image = new GreenfootImage (size, size);

image.setColor (color);

image.fillOval (0, 0, size-1, size-1);

setImage (image);

}

### this

this (20, 300, new Vector (90, 1.0), defaultColor );

This line looks almost like a method call, except it uses the keyword this instead of a method name. Using this the constructor executes the other constructor, the one with parameters.

this.mass = mass;

When we write this.mass, we specify that we mean the mass field of the current object.

### Exercise 6.11

/**

* Construct a Body with default size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body()

{

this (20, 300, new Vector(0, 1.0), defaultColor);

}

/**

* Construct a Body with a specified size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body(int size, double mass, Vector movement, Color color)

{

this.mass = mass;

GreenfootImage image = new GreenfootImage (size, size);

image.setColor (color);

image.fillOval (0, 0, size-1, size-1);

setImage (image);

}

Remove the “this”

### Exercise 6.11

Does is Compile?

Does it Execute?

What does the Code do?

What is its effect?

### Code 6.2

private static final double GRAVITY = 5.8;

private static final Color defaultColor = new Color(255, 216, 0);

The term final defines this field to be a constant. A constant has similarities to a field, in that we can use the name in our code to refer to its value, but the value can never change (it is constant).

The effect of the static keyword is that this constant is shared between all actors of this class.

### 6.4 First Extension: Creating Movement

The first obvious experiment is to make bodies move.

SmootherMover Class has a move () method and since Body is a SmoothMover, it too has access to this method.

### Exercise 6.12

/**

* Act. That is: apply the gravitation forces from

* all other bodies around, and then move.

*/

public void act()

{

move();

}

Add the move () Method to the act () Method of the Body Class.”

### Exercise 6.12

The Default Speed

is 1.0

The Default Direction is 0 Degrees

### Exercise 6.13

Multiple Objects Move from Left to Right at a Constant Speed

### Exercies 6.14

The Sun Does Not Appear to Move

The Earth Moves Straight Down Rapidly

### Exercise 6.15

/**

* Construct a Body with default size, mass, movement and color.

*/

public Body()

{

this (20, 300, new Vector(-180, 1.0), defaultColor);

}

Change the Direction in the Default Constructor from 0 to -180

-90

270

-180

180

0

360

-270

90

### 6.5 Using Java Library Classes

import java.awt.Color;

new Color (248, 160, 86)

R

G

B

java.awt Package

Color Class

### Exercise 6.17

We can give an outline of the task in pseudo-code.

apply forces from other bodies:

get all other bodies in space;

for each of those bodies:

{

apply gravity from that body to our own;

}

### Code 6.3

/**

* Act. That is: apply the gravitation forces from

* all other bodies around, and then move.

*/

public void act()

{

move ();

}

### Code 6.4

/*

* Act. For a body, that is: apply all the gravitation forces from

* all other bodies around, and then move.

*/

public void act()

{

applyForces ();

move ();

}

/*

* Apply the forces of gravity from all other celestial bodies in this universe

*/

private void applyForces()

{

// work to do here

}

### Private Methods

Methods can be public or private. When methods are intended to be called from outside the class (either interactively by a user or from another class), the they must be public. When methods are intended to be called only from other methods within the same class, then they should be declared private.

### Exercise 6.18

getObjects ( java.lang.Class cls )

getObjectsAt ( int x, int y, java.lang.Class cls )

numberOfObjects ( )

removeObject ( Actor object)

removeObjects ( java.util.Collection objects )

### getObjects ()

java.util.List getObjects ( java.lang.Class cls )

Gives a list of all objects in the world of a particular class

getObjects ( Body.class )

Gets a list of all the objects in the world of class Body

getObjects ( null )

• The keyword null is a special expression that means nothing, or no object

### getWorld().getObjects

World getWorld()

• There is a method in the Actor class that gives us access to the World class. It signature is

• World getWorld ().

getWorld().getObjects ( Body.class )

• getObjects is a method of the World class, so it must be called on a World object. We will write our code in the Body class, so we must first obtain the World object to call this method on.

### 6.7 The List Type

java.util.List

The List type is not a class, but an interface. Interfaces are a Java construct that provides an abstraction over different possible implementing classes.

### Exercise 6.19

add ( int index, E element )

addAll ( Collection <? extends E> c )

addAll ( int index, Collection< ? extends E> c )

remove ( int index )

remove ( Object o )

size ()

### Exercise 6.20

Interface List<E>

### Interface List<E>

Interface List<E>

• Interface is in the place of class and the notation <E> is after the type name. This is the Generic Type. This means that the type List needs an additional type specified as a parameter. This second type specifies the type of the elements held within the list.

### Interface List<E>

List<String>

• A list of Strings

List<Actor>

• A list of Actors

List<Body> bodies

• A list of bodies

List<Body> bodies = getWorld().getobjects (Body.class):

• The variable bodies holds a list of all the bodies that exist in the World.

### Code 6.5

import java.util.List;

/*

* Apply the forces of gravity from all other celestial bodies in this universe

*/

private void applyForces()

{

List<Body> bodies = getWorld().getObjects(Body.class);

}

### 6.8 The for-each Loop

• Java has a specialized loop for stepping through every element of a collection. It is called a for-each loop .

for ( Element Type variable : collection )

{

statements;

}

### The for-each Loop

for ( Body body : bodies )

{

body.move();

}

for each body in bodies do:

body = first element from ‘bodies’;

execute loop statements;

body = second element for ‘bodies’;

execute loop statements;

body = third element from ‘bodies’;

execute loop statements;

. . .

### Code 6.6

/*

* Apply the forces of gravity from all other celestial bodies in this universe

*/

private void applyForces()

{

List<Body> bodies = getWorld().getObjects(Body.class);

for (Body body : bodies)

{

if (body != this)

{

applyGravity (body);

}

}

}

/*

* Apply the gravity force of a given body to this one.

*/

private void applyGravity (Body other)

{

// work to do here

}

### 6.9 Applying Gravity

Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation

states that every massive particle in the universe attracts every other massive particle with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

### Code 6.7

/*

* Apply the gravity force of a given body to this one.

*/

private void applyGravity(Body other)

{

double dx = other.getExactX() - this.getExactX();

double dy = other.getExactY() - this.getExactY();

Vector force = new Vector (dx, dy);

double distance = Math.sqrt (dx*dx + dy*dy);

double strength = GRAVITY * this.mass * other.mass / (distance * distance);

double acceleration = strength / this.mass;

force.setLength (acceleration);

}

a2 + b2 = c2

### Exercise 6.22

max ( int a, int b )

### Acceleration

force

acceleration =

mass

Once we have calculated the acceleration, we can set our force vector to the correct length and add this vector to the movement of our body.

### Exercise 6.23

a2 + b2 = c2

dx2 + dy2 = distance2

(other.getExactX()-this.getExactX())2 + (other.getExactY()-this.getExactY())2 = distance2

distance = Math.sqrt ( (other.getExactX()-this.getExactX())2 + (other.getExactY()-this.getExactY())2 )

### Exercise 6.23

mass1 X mass2

G

force =

distance

force = (mass1 * mass2 / distance2 ) * G

force = ( this.mass * other.mass / distance *distance ) * GRAVITY

### Exercise 6.25

If the Gravitational Constant is set Higher than 5.8, planets spiral into one another, and if it is set lower, planets fly off into deep space.

size

mass

vector

movement

r

g

b

x

y

### Exercise 6.26

addObject (new Body (100, 500.0, new Vector(270, 0.0), new Color(255, 216, 0)), 460, 270);

addObject (new Body (20, 4.2, new Vector(90, 2.2), new Color(0, 124, 196)), 720, 260);

addObject (new Body (5, 0.8, new Vector(90, 3.25), new Color(240, 220, 96)), 748, 260);

### Exercise 6.27

All Systems That I Tested Were Very Unstable

### 6.11 Gravity and Music

The idea to add sound to a gravity project was inspired by Kepler’s Orrery (see https://keplers-orrery.dev.java.net/ )

### 6.12 Summary of Programming Techniques

One of the most important topics in the chapter was the use of additional classes from the Standard Java Class Library, Color, Math, and List.

Another new addition was the use of a new loop the for-each loop. This loop is used to do something to every element of a Java collection such as a List. If we need an index, or a loop independent of a collection, then we must use a for loop or a while loop instead.