Carbon allotropes
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Carbon allotropes. The physical properties depend on the chemical bonding. Diamond. Strong covalent bonds in 3 dimensions Every carbon atom bonds 4 other carbon atoms in a crystalline lattice The hardest material known. Diamond . Hard, colourless, insulator

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Carbon allotropes

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Carbon allotropes

Carbonallotropes


The physical properties depend on the chemical bonding

The physicalpropertiesdepend on the chemical bonding


Diamond

Diamond

Strong covalentbonds in 3 dimensions

Everycarbon atom bonds 4 other

carbon atoms in a crystallinelattice

The hardest material known


Carbon allotropes

Diamond

  • Hard, colourless, insulator

  • Tetrahedral, giant structure

  • Covalent bond => sp3 orbitals (HL)


Graphite

Graphite

The double bondsare

delocalised and move-

electricconductivity

in the plane

The planes bond withweakintermolecular

bonds- van derWaals bonds

The layersmoveeasily- graphitecolours

Animation


Carbon allotropes

Graphite

  • Slippery, black, electricity conductor

  • Layers of fused six-membered rings. Each carbon surrounded by three others in a planar trigonal arrangement => sp2 + p-orbital (HL)

  • The p-orbital is perpendicular to the layer and give close packed p-orbitals

  • stabilise the layers

  • Delocalisation of electrons => electrical conductivity


Fullerenes och nanotubes

Fullerenesoch nanotubes

Nanotubes


Carbon allotropes

Fullerene, C60

  • Spherical molecule. Looks like a football. 12 pentagons and 20 hexagons.

  • Bonds: C60 –hydration C60H60

    (C2H4 + H2 C2H6 ; 1 H2 / double bond)

    Each carbon has a double bond


Graph n

Graphén


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