The Institutional Presidency. Evolution of the Institutional Presidency.
PowerPoint Slideshow about ' The Institutional Presidency' - feng
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
The institutional presidency is the a term commonly applied to the White House, Office of Management and Budget, and other elements of the Executive Office of the President-for example the Council of Economic Advisors and the National Security Council.
Less commonly, it also refers to patterned behaviors that link the presidency to other parts of the political system. The relation to the OMB, for example, is quite regularized in its interactions with the bureaucracy, while many other structures are ephemeral in their relation to the presidency.
Washington- He quickly filled in the “silences” of the Constitution by establishing precedents.
The Constitution made no provision for an advisory body to the president. This was left vague intentionally with the statement “request the opinion in writing” of those in the executive branch. Washington turned to his Department Heads for advice to establish a “cabinet” like government. He went beyond the Constitutional charge to “request the opinion in writing”.
Congress established: Department of State, Department of Treasury, Department of War, Post Office, Attorney General-1789 ; Department of Navy-1798 ;Department of Interior-1849 ; Department of Agriculture-1862 ; Department of Commerce and Labor 1903 ; Department of Commerce, Department of Labor 1913 ; Department of Defense-1947 ; Department of Health, Education, and Welfare-1953 ; Housing and Urban Development-1965 ; Transportation-1966 ; Energy-1977 ; Health and Human Services-1980 ; Education-1980 ; Veteran’s Affairs-1988 ; Homeland Security-2002
The heads of these Departments, called Secretaries, are called the Cabinet.
During the 19th century and until the mid-20th century, presidents relied extensively on their cabinets for advice.
Recall our earlier discussion of the White House and how little personnel support that presidents had until the F.D. Roosevelt administration.
From 1787 to 1857 the president’s staff was very small and they were paid out of the president’s own pocket. No public funds were authorized for presidential staff or support. The phrase in the constitution that the president “shall not receive within that Period any other Emolument from the United States.”was taken as a prohibition on support for the president.
Nevertheless, in 1857 Congress passed a law that provided funds for a private secretary to the president, a steward, and a messenger.
This was seen as precedent, and the staffing of the institutional presidency continued through the years.
Still, until the FDR administration, staffing was meager. Staff were mainly clerks for the purpose of answering mail, etc. Grover Cleveland answered his own telephone. Woodrow Wilson typed his own letters.
As late as 1922, the official staff to the presidency was only 31.
The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 sharply altered one dimension of support for the president. It established the Bureau of the Budget for the purpose of assisting the president in formulating a presidential budget for submission to Congress.
When Franklin Roosevelt came to office in 1933, a recognizable albeit small presidential staff existed. It was slowly growing in size and beginning to show signs of specialization and division of labor.
Nevertheless, Roosevelt felt overwhelmed because of the growth in government and multiple tasks the president was required to perform.
A much watered down set of recommendations for support of the presidency was passed by Congress in April of 1939.
The Reorganization Act of 1939 gave the president authority to reorganize the executive branch, subject to a legislative veto. Note that this authority was renewed each year through 1980.
Reorganization Plan No. 1 under this legislation established the Executive Office of the President (EOP). This plan transferred pre-existing agencies, the Natural Resources Planning Board and the Bureau of the Budget to the EOP.
The EOP has grown in staff and budget since 1939. Official data in 2010 put the EOP budget at $830 million, with 1,888 staff members. Of these, 487 are with the White House, 528 are with OMB, 229 are in the Office of the Trade Representative, 225 are with the Office of Administration, 96 are with the Executive Residence, etc. Here are links to the EOP and White House.
Currently there are 11 major units in the EOP. These include the following:
Beginning with the Ford administration OMB has contained an office assigned to perform cost-benefit analysis of major rules coming out of the executive brancy.
EO 12291 during the Reagan administration greatly accentuated this review process by creating a new office and making explicit which rules should be reviewed. Reviewed 2-3 thousand regulations per year.
All presidents since Reagan have maintained this function, with the definition of major rule being changed and made more inclusive by fresh executive orders from each presidency.
Clinton’s was EO 12866- Reviewed fewer 500-700 annually.
Bush’s was 13,422. Congress overturned his order giving OIRA additional powers.
The mandate of the NSC is to “advise the president with respect to integration of domestic, foreign, and military policies relating to national security.”
Roughly a dozen people serve on the NSC, including the president, vice-president, secretaries of State, Defense, and Treasury, the UN ambassador, the CIA director, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, assistant to the president for national security affairs, assistant to the president for economic affairs, and the White House Chief of Staff.
The CEA and NSC both illustrate how Congress can make its demands felt on the EOP. Both organizations were congressionally created to fulfill new obligations on the presidency.
Presidents have used three basic models to organize the White House staff. Collegial model-Kennedy used, and Carter and Clinton began with. Competitive system-Roosevelt used this. Formal, Centrally Managed system-Eisenhower, Reagan.
Collegial system-Small group of aides who work informally together to advise the president, plan and coordinate administration positions and responses. Key ingredient is working together. Team approach. Generate loyalty without centralized control. Most collegial staffs come directly from the president’s campaign. True believers. Lack of experience. Team may be too cohesive, perceptions too uniform so that the president does not get the gamut of advice. Group-think.
Did this phenomenon lead to the Bay of Pigs fiasco? Vietnam? White House response to Iraqi invasion of Kuwait?
Centrally Managed Hierarchical system. All information is directed upward through a rigidly organized hierarchical system in which a single presidential advisor filters information to the president. Homework is done below; decisionmaking is done above. Problem is that it can be too efficient so that decisions are already made before they reach the president. Aggravates the proclivity toward isolation for the White House.
Was this type staffing system partially responsible for the Watergate cover-up?