Immunity

Immunity PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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05 Dec. 2007. Immunity.ppt. 2. Adaptive, Specific Resistance.

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Immunity

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1. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 1 Immunity Adaptive, Specific Responses

2. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 2 Adaptive, Specific Resistance “Immunity” Specificity Systemic Whole body, not restricted to initial site “Memory” for previously encountered antigens

3. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 3 Immunity Humoral immunity Antibody-mediated immunity Cellular immunity Cell-mediated immunity

4. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 4 Immunity Antigens Anything that can provoke an immune response Complete antigen Immunogenicity, Reactivity Incomplete antigen = hapten Reactive, but not immunogenic Bind to other proteins ? immunogenic

5. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 5 Immunity Antigenic determinants Single antigen may have several parts that provoke immune response. Self-antigens Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Cell surface glycoproteins

6. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 6 Immunity Antibodies Large complex proteins Y-shaped 4 polypeptide chains 2 “heavy” 2 “light” Constant region Variable region with antigen binding sites

7. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 7 Immunity Antibody classes = Immunoglobulins IgD, IgM, IgG In blood &/or attached to B lymphocytes IgA In saliva, sweat, tears, etc. IgE Bound to basophils & mast cells Causes release of histamine; allergy; parasitic infection

8. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 8 Immunity Immune cell types T lymphocytes Mature in thymus B lymphocytes Mature in marrow Antigen-presenting cells (APCs)

9. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 9 Immunity Antigen-presenting cells Dendritic cells Langerhans’ cells Macrophages B lymphocytes Presenting antigens Phagocytosis Partial digestion Fragments bound to “presenting proteins” on vesicle membrane Exocytosis & presentation

10. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 10 Immunity Humoral response Antigen binding to B lymphocyte(s) Clonal selection Plasma cells secrete antibodies Memory cells preserve experience, save antibodies ready to react to same antigen again

11. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 11 Immunity Humoral response Secondary response Memory cells start response to same antigen

12. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 12 Immunity Primary response First exposure to antigen Natural or artificial Secondary response Subsequent exposure Much more vigorous than primary Vaccination

13. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 13 Immunity Cell-mediated response T lymphocytes CD4 CD8

14. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 14 Immunity Cell-mediated response CD4 cells differentiate to Helper T cells Secrete cytokines Recruit cytotoxic T cells, B cells

15. 05 Dec. 2007 Immunity.ppt 15 Immunity Cell-mediated response CD8 cells differentiate to cytotoxic T cells Cytotoxic T cells attack & kill virus-infected and cancer cells

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