Communities and biomes
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Communities and Biomes. Community. Community : A collection of several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment. Limiting Factors.

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Communities and Biomes

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Communities and biomes

Communities and Biomes


Community

Community

  • Community: A collection of several interacting populations that inhabit a common environment.


Limiting factors

Limiting Factors

  • Factors that affect an organism’s ability to survive in its environment, such as the availability of water and food, predators, and temperature, are called limiting factors.

    • A limiting factoris any biotic or abiotic factor that restricts the existence, numbers, reproduction, or disturbance of organisms.


Ranges o f tolerance

Ranges of Tolerance

  • The ability of an organism to withstand fluctuations in biotic and abiotic environmental factors is known as tolerance


Ecological succession

Ecological Succession

  • Ecosystems are constantly changing in response to natural and human disturbances.

    • As an ecosystem changes, older inhabitants gradually die out and new organisms move in, causing further changes in the community.


Ecological succession1

Ecological Succession

  • Ecological succession is the series of predictable changes that occur in a community over time.

    • Primary succession takes place on bare rock surfaces where no soil exists. Pioneer species are the first species to live in these areas.

    • Secondary succession occurs when a disturbance changes a community without removing soil.


Primary succession

Primary Succession


Secondary succession

Secondary Succession


Biotic and abiotic factors

Biotic and Abiotic Factors

  • Organisms in ecosystems are affected by both biotic and abiotic factors.

  • Biotic factorsare all of the living things with which organisms interact.

  • Abiotic factorsare nonliving, physical things. (Ex. temperature and soil type)

  • Together, biotic and abiotic factors determine the survival and growth of an organism and the productivity of the ecosystem in which and organism lives.


Communities and biomes

Abiotic and Biotic Factors

Abiotic Factors

Biotic Factors

ECOSYSTEM


Ecological succession video

Ecological Succession Video

  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V49IovRSJDs


Climate

Climate

  • In the atmosphere, temperature, precipitation, and other environmental factors combine to produce weather and climate.

  • Weather: is the day-to-day condition of Earth’s atmosphere at a certain time and place.

  • Climate: is the average yearly condition of temperature and precipitation in a region.

    • Climate affects ecosystems.


The greenhouse effect

The Greenhouse Effect

  • Carbon dioxide and other atmospheric gases trap heat energy and maintain Earth’s temperature range.

    • These gases function like the glass windows of a greenhouse.

  • The trapping of heat by gases in the atmosphere is called the greenhouse effect.

    • This greenhouse effect helps temperatures on Earth stay within a range that supports life.


Communities and biomes

The Greenhouse Effect


The effect of latitude on climate

The Effect of Latitude on Climate

  • Latitude also affects climate. Earth has 3 main climate zones: polar, temperate, and tropical.

    • Polar Zones are cold areas where the sun’s rays strike Earth at a very long angle.

    • Temperate Zones sit between the polar zones and the tropics. The climate in these zones ranges from hot to cold, depending on the season.

    • The Tropical Zones or tropics, is near the equator. The climate here is almost always warm.


Communities and biomes

The Effect of Latitude on Climate

90°N North Pole

Sunlight

66.5°N

Arctic circle

Sunlight

Tropic of Cancer

23.5°N

Equator

Most direct sunlight

Tropic of Capricorn

23.5°S

Sunlight

Arctic circle

66.5°S

Sunlight

90°S South Pole


Heat transport in the biosphere

Heat Transport in the Biosphere

  • Unequal heating of Earth’s surface also causes winds and ocean currents.

    • Wind and ocean currents move heat through the biosphere.


Biomes

Biomes

  • A biomeis a group of land communities that covers a large area and has a certain soil type and climate

  • Within a biome, there maybe microclimates

    • A microclimateis a small area where the climate differs from that of the surrounding area.


The major biomes

The Major Biomes

  • There are ten major biomes:

    • Tropical Rain Forest, Tropical Dry Forest, Tropical Savanna

    • Desert

    • Temperate Grassland, Temperate Woodland and Shrubland, Temperate Forest

    • Northwestern Coniferous Forest, Boreal Forest (or Taiga)

    • Tundra

      • Each biome has its own set of abiotic factors and a typical collection of organisms.

      • Some areas, such as mountains and polar ice caps, do not fall neatly into the major biomes


Communities and biomes

Compare/Contrast Table of Biomes


Communities and biomes

The World’s Major Land Biomes

Temperate grassland

Tropical rain forest

Temperate forest

Tundra

Northwestern

coniferous forest

Mountains and

ice caps

Tropical dry forest

Desert

Temperate woodland

and shrubland

Tropical savanna

Boreal forest

(Taiga)


Aquatic biomes

Aquatic Biomes

  • Unlike land biomes, which are grouped geographically, aquatic biomes are grouped by the abiotic factors that affect them.

  • Aquatic biomes are described mainly by the depth, flow, temperature, and chemistry of their water.


Aquatic energy

Aquatic Energy

  • In many aquatic biomes, tiny free-floating swimming organisms can be found. These organisms are called plankton.

  • There are 2 types of plankton (phytoplankton and zooplankton)

    • Phytoplanktonare single-celled algae that use nutrients in water to make food. They form the base of many aquatic food webs.

    • Zooplankton are animals that feed on phytoplankton


Aquatic biomes1

Aquatic Biomes

  • There are 3 main groups of aquatic biomes:

  • 1. Freshwater biomes can be divided into several types.

    • Flowing-water biomes (rivers and streams) flow over land.

    • Standing-water biomes include lakes and ponds

    • Freshwater wetlands include bogs, marshes, and swamps. In wetlands, water covers the soil or is present at or near the surface for at least part of year.


Bogs marshes and swamps

Bogs, Marshes, and Swamps


Aquatic biomes2

Aquatic Biomes

  • Estuariesare wetlands formed where rivers meet the sea. They contain a mixture of fresh and salt water. Most food made in estuaries enters food webs as tiny pieces of organic matter, called detritus.

    • Salt marshes are temperate estuaries. Salt-tolerant grasses and sea grasses are the dominant plant life in salt marshes.

    • Mangrove swamps are tropical estuaries. The dominant plant life in mangrove swamps includes several species of salt-tolerant trees, called mangroves, and sea grasses.


Aquatic biomes3

Aquatic Biomes

  • Marine biomes exist in the ocean. The ocean is divided into zones based on how much light penetrates the water.

    • The photic zone is the well-lit upper layer of water. Photosynthesis can take place here.

    • The aphotic zone is the permanently dark lower layer of water. Producers here use chemosynthesis to make food.


Oceans

Oceans

  • The ocean is also divided into zones based on depth and distance from shore: the intertidal zone, the coastal ocean, and the open ocean, and benthic zone.


Marine biomes

Marine Biomes

Organisms in the intertidal zone are exposed to regular and extreme changes in their surroundings. (tides)

  • The coastal zone is relatively shallow, lies entirely within the photic zone, and is often rich in plankton and other organisms. Coral reefs grow in tropical coastal oceans.


Marine biomes1

Marine Biomes

The open ocean is the largest zone, covering more than 90 percent of the surface area of the world’s oceans. These areas typically have low levels of nutrients and support only small producers.

Benthic zone is the bottom of the ocean, contains organisms that live attached to or near the bottom.


Communities and biomes

Zones of a Marine Biomes

land

Photic zone

200m

1000m

Coastal

ocean

4000m

Aphotic zone

Open

ocean

6000m

Ocean

trench

10,000m

Continental

shelf

Continental slope and

continental rise

Abyssal

plain


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