Chronology of the Islamic Empire. Please draw the following timeline in your notebook. . 1037 A.D. 732 A.D. 909 A.D. 711 A.D. 1099 A.D. 1299 A.D. 632 A.D. 644 A.D. 661 A.D. 622 A.D. 610 A.D. 570 A.D. 680 A.D. 1258 A.D. 1187 A.D. 656 A.D. 874 A.D. 1206 A.D. 630 A.D. 638 A.D.
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Chronology of the Islamic Empire
Please draw the following timeline in your notebook.
Muhammad is born
in Mecca. At the
time, the Arabian
of many nomadic
warring tribes, no
divisions between wealthy merchants and slaves. Mecca was a wealthy trading center.
This map shows some of the major trade routes crossing through 6th century Arabia.
At the age of 40, Muhammad begins to receive revelations from God and begins to preach the Qur'an. Muhammad was a member of the Quraysh tribe that resided in Mecca.
A map showing the major tribes and settlements of the Arabian peninsula during Muhammad’s lifetime.
The Hijra. Threatened by persecution, Muhammad and his followers fled from Mecca to Yathrib (now known as
The conquest of Mecca. Muhammad returns to Mecca and destroys the idols in the Kaaba.
Muhammad dies and is buried in Medina. Abu Bakr becomes the first Caliph of Islam. Abu Bakr would die two years later and Umar would become the second Caliph.
The Islamic Empire during the reign of Abu Bakr As-Ṣiddīq.
The Mosque of the Prophet built in Medina. The second holiest site in Islam.
Jerusalem is conquered by Muslim armies and becomes the third holiest city in Islam after Mecca and Medina.
The Dome of the Rock was completed in Jerusalem in 691 C.E. This shrine is built over the location where Muslims believe the Prophet was lifted to heaven by God. Before being instructed by God to pray towards Mecca, Muhammad and his followers faced this location while praying.
Umar, the second Caliph is murdered by Persians who wanted revenge for the Muslim conquest of Persia. He was stabbed while praying in the mosque in Medina and died of the wounds three days later.
Uthman, the third Rashidun Caliph comes to power.
“In the matter of administration do not prefer the rich to the poor. Be hard against those who violate the law. Show them no mercy. Do not rest content until you have brought the miscreants to book. Treat all the people as equal. Be a pillar of strength for those who are weak and oppressed. Those who are strong but do wrong, make them pay for their wrong-doings.”
- Caliph Umar
Caliph Uthman is murdered by Muslim rebels at his home in Medina. Ali is asked to be the next caliph. The first Islamic civil war beginswith the Battle of the Camel in which Aisha (a widow of the prophet) leads a force against Ali because Ali will not seek revenge against the murderers of Uthman.
The Battle of Karbala. The armies of Yazid I, the second Umayyad Caliph defeate a small force led by Hussein (the prophet’s grandson). Hussein, and all of his supporters including his six month old son were killed. Women and children were taken into captivity. This event is extremely
sacred to Shia Muslims
who believe Hussein
and his followers to
Tariq leads an
army of Berbers
against the Visigoth King Roderic. Parts of the Iberian Peninsula would remain under Muslim control for the next 781 years.
Muslim armies are defeated by Charles Martel at the Battle of Tours.
The Abbasid clan defeats the Umayyads in the Battle of Zab and their leader, Abul `Abbas al-Saffaḥbecomes Caliph. The new Abbasid Caliphate moves the capital city of Islam from Damascus to Baghdad.
The Umayyads fled to Andalucía where they established the Caliphate of Cordoba which lasted until 1031 C.E. The great Mosque in Cordoba was then converted into a Cathedral.
The University of al-Karaouine is founded in Fez, Morocco. It is the oldest existing and continually operating educational institution in the world. The Mosque and Madrassa were commissioned by Fatima al-Fihri, the daughter of a wealthy Tunisian merchant.
Hasan al-Askari, the 11th Shia Imam dies in Prison in Samarra, Iraq. Shia Muslims believe that his son, Muhammad ibn Hasan al-Mahdī, who was five years old at the time, went into hiding and is still being hidden by God.
The Al-Askari Mosque was built in Samarra Iraq in 944 C.E. around the remains of the 10th and 11th imams. The 12th imams mother is also buried there. The Mosque was destroyed by two separate bombings in 2006 and 2007. Al Qaeda is thought to have been responsible for the bombings.
The Fatimid Caliphate is founded in Tunisia. They practiced and enforced Shia Islam and claimed to be descendants of the prophet’s daughter Fatima. In 983, they moved their capital to Cairo Egypt. This rival caliphate of the Abbasids lasted until 1171.
Al- Azhar Mosque and University were built in Cairo by the Fatimids. Completed in 972 C.E. the university is the second oldest university in the world behind al-Karaouinein Fez.
The Seljuk Empire is founded when
Tughril Beg takes the throne. The
Seljuks were a group of Turkish tribes
from central Asia. They had converted
to Islam in 985 C.E.. Tughril led them in
conquests against the Persians, the
Abbasids, the Fatimids, and the Byzantines.
After conquering the Abbasid capital of Baghdad, he allowed the Abbasid caliphs to hold their positions, but he assumed all real political and military power.
The tomb of Tughril Beg in Iran.
Fatimid Jerusalem is
the crusaders. Even
had been under
Muslim control for
461 years, Christians had been able to pilgrimage there. When the Seljuks came to power, they conquered much of the Byzantine Empire and made Christian pilgrimages difficult, leading to the crusades.
Prise de Jérusalem par les Croisés, ÉmileSignol, 1847
Saladin recaptures Jerusalem from the crusaders. Saladin was a Sunni Muslim that had become vizier of the Shia Fatimid Caliph in Cairo. His rise to power in 1171 C.E. upon the death of the Caliph brought an end to the Fatimid Caliphate.
The Delhi Sultanate is established in Northern India by Muslim Turks and Afghans. At the time, most of the subcontinent was ruled by warring Hindu and Buddhist principalities. Many Indians, especially those of lower castes converted to Islam.
The Minaret and Mosque at the Qutb complex in Dehli.
Bagdad is destroyed by the Mongols. The golden age of Islam under the Abbasids comes to a close. Although many of the Mongols had converted to Islam, they were primarily concerned with collecting tribute from conquered peoples.
Osman I, the leader of a Seljuk principality in Anatolia declares independence from the Seljuks and the Ottoman Empire is founded.
Osman I (1258 – 1326)
The Ottomans conquer the Byzantine capital of Constantinople. They renamed the city Istanbul and it remained their capital until 1923.
Babur conquers the Delhi Sultanate and establishes the Mughal Empire. This empire would last until 1857, when the British would make India part of their Empire.