Polymers
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Polymers. What Are Polymers?. Large molecule that consists of lots of small repeating subunits Subunits are called monomers Polymers are formed when monomers are linked together is a process called polymerization. Addition Polymers. Polymers are linked through addition reactions

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Polymers

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Polymers

Polymers


What are polymers

What Are Polymers?

  • Large molecule that consists of lots of small repeating subunits

  • Subunits are called monomers

  • Polymers are formed when monomers are linked together is a process called polymerization


Addition polymers

Addition Polymers

  • Polymers are linked through addition reactions

  • Three stages in synthesis

    • Initiation

    • Propagation

    • Termination


Polyethylene

Polyethylene

  • Polymer made from ethene monomers


Polyethylene1

Polyethylene

  • Polymer made from ethene monomers

  • Short form notation:


Polyethylene2

Polyethylene


Polypropene

Polypropene

  • Made from propene monomers


Polypropene1

Polypropene

  • Made from propene monomers

  • Used in rope and carpets

  • Short form notation:


Polyvinyl chloride pvc

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

  • Made with chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomers


Polyvinyl chloride pvc1

Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)

  • Made with chloroethene (vinyl chloride) monomers

  • Used in electrical wire insulation, plastic piping, coating on fabrics

  • Short form notation:


Polystyrene

Polystyrene


Polystyrene1

Polystyrene

  • Made from (styrene) phenylethene

  • Very commonly used


Substituted groups

Substituted Groups

  • Change the properties of polymer

  • Teflon monomer: tetrafluroethane

  • Plexiglass monomer: methyl propenoate


Crosslinking

Crosslinking

  • Occurs when links can be formed in 2 directions

    • Diene monomers can form bridges between chains

  • Diene doesn’t have to be main monomer

  • Increases polymers’ strength


Plastic properties

Plastic Properties

  • Substituted ethene (vinyl) monomers considered “plastics”

  • Saturated alkanes

    • Very stable

    • Unreactive

  • Flexible and mouldable solids or liquids

    • Weak van der Waals forces

  • Softened by heating

    • Disrupts forces


Condensation polymers

Condensation Polymers

  • Monomer units are joined by condensation reactions

  • Monomer units must have functional groups at each end


Polyesters

Polyesters

  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diol


Polyesters1

Polyesters

  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diol


Polyamides

Polyamides

  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diamine


Polyamides1

Polyamides

  • Formed between dicarboxylic acid and diamine


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