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Military Psychology: Overview PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Military Psychology: Overview. Dr. Steven J. Kass Dr. (Major) Alan Ogle. Military 101. Rank / Grade. People. Service members Family Community. Community. Family Members. Officers. Enlisted Members. Military Psychology Defined.

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Military Psychology: Overview

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Military psychology overview l.jpg

Military Psychology:Overview

Dr. Steven J. Kass

Dr. (Major) Alan Ogle


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Military 101


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Rank / Grade


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People

  • Service members

  • Family

  • Community

Community

Family Members

Officers

Enlisted Members


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Military Psychology Defined

Military Psychology – The study and application of psychological principles and methods to the military environment.


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Employment in Military Psychology

  • Colleges/Universities

  • Veteran’s Affairs (VA)

  • Military Hospitals

  • Defense Contractors

  • DOD Labs

  • Military Academies

  • Consulting


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Military Psychology Objectives

  • Combat Readiness

  • Selection & Training

  • Treatment

  • Human Performance


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History of Military Psychology

  • 1855 – US Gov’t Hospital for Insane (St. Elizabeths) to treat military psychiatric patients

  • 1878 – Wilhelm Wundt starts experimental psychology lab in Liepzig Germany

    • Notable American student – James Cattell

  • 1890 – James Cattell coined term “mental test”

    • Promoted standarization of procedures and use of norms in studying individual differences

  • 1892 – American Psychological Associated founded

    • 19 charter divisions (Military Psychology – Div 19)

  • 1907 – Shepard Ivory Franz (civilian research psychologist at St. Elizabeths) developed routine psych screening for patients

  • 1911 – Heber Butts – Navy medical officer at St. Elizabeths, published first protocol for psych screening of Navy recruits


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History of Military Psychology

  • WWI (1914-1918) - Robert Yerkes organized psychologists to test and classify recruits in war effort

    • Army Alpha & Beta Projects (precursor to ASVAB)

    • Screened out individuals deemed mentally unfit

    • ASVAB given to over 1.5 million annually

    • Walter Dill Scott – proficiency testing for 83 military jobs

    • 1918 first Army billet for psychologist at Walter Reed Hospital

    • Development of structured measures of psychopathology to efficiently screen for mental abnormalities (led to psychiatry)


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History of Military Psychology

  • World War II (1939 – 1945)

    • ¼ of all US psychologists engaged in military psych

    • 1941 Psychological Bulletin devoted entire issue to Military Psych (prior to attack on Pearl Harbor)

    • Human Factors Psychology (Engineering Psych)

      • Design of advanced weapon systems

      • Placement of controls in aircraft

      • Design of instrument displays, consoles, protective gear, combat info centers, communications equipment


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History of Military Psychology

  • 1946 – VA Hospitals

    • Training programs to turn out clinical psychologists to diagnose and treat veterans

    • APA approved pre-doctoral internships and post-doctoral fellowships

    • Over 50% of WWII vets in hospital were there for psychiatric reasons


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History of Military Psychology

  • Post WWII changes influences on Psychology

    • US funded Big 10 studies on Leadership (Illinois, Michigan, Ohio State)

    • Milgram’s research on obedience

    • Zimbardo’s prison study

    • Kurt Lewin’s action research (to identify and solve problems of minorities)

    • 1958 - Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) – developed in response to Sputnik

      • funded projects that led to such breakthoughs as:

        • SIMNET – simulation networking

        • Virtual reality

        • ArpaNet - Internet


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Domains of Military Psychology

  • Selection, Classification, & Assignment

  • Human Factors

  • Environmental Factors

  • Leadership

  • Individual and Group Behavior

  • Clinical & Consultative/Organizational Psych

  • Training & Education

  • Manpower Management Decision Making Support


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Military PsychologySpecialty Topics

  • Propaganda & Psychological Warfare

  • Hostage Negotiation

  • Women’s Role in the Military

  • Prisoners of War (POWs)


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Military PsychologyStudent Involvement

  • Join APA Division 19 (student discounts)

  • Read “Military Psychology” journal

  • Conduct and Present Research in Mil Psy

  • “Handbook of Military Psychology”

  • Attend Conferences/Symposia

  • DOD Internships/Co-ops (DOD largest employer of psychologists)


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