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Why, What, Where, Who, How. The Importance of Questioning. Questioning.

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Why, What, Where, Who, How

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Why what where who how

Why, What, Where, Who, How

The Importance of Questioning


Questioning

Questioning

“The most important questions don’t seem to have ready answers. But the questions themselves have a healing power when they are shared. An answer is an invitation to stop thinking about something, to stop wondering. Life has no such stopping places. Life is a process whose every event is connected to the moment that just went by. An unanswered question is a fine traveling companion. It sharpens your eye for the road.

~Rachel Naomi Remen, M.D.


What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture

What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture?


What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture1

What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture?


What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture2

What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture?


What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture3

What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture?


What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture4

What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture?


The photographer kevin carter committed suicide 3 months after taking this photo

The photographer, Kevin Carter, committed suicide 3 months after taking this photo.


Why what where who how

What are three questions that come to your mind about this picture?

http://www.kevincarterfilm.com/synopsis.html


Key concepts

Key Concepts

Proficient readers ask questions to:


Key concepts1

Key Concepts

a. Clarify meaning


Key concepts2

Key Concepts

a. Clarify meaning

b. Speculate about text


Key concepts3

Key Concepts

a. Clarify meaning

b. Speculate about text

c. Determine an author’s intent,

style, content


Key concepts4

Key Concepts

a. Clarify meaning

b. Speculate about text

c. Determine an author’s intent,

style, content

d.Answer a specific question


Key concepts5

Key Concepts

a. Clarify meaning

b. Speculate about text

c. Determine an author’s intent,

style, content

d.Answer a specific question

e. Consider rhetorical questions

inspired by the text


Key concepts6

Key Concepts

Proficient readers use questions to focus their attention on important parts of the text.


Key concepts7

Key Concepts

Proficient readers understand that many of the most intriguing questions are not answered specifically in the text but left to the reader’s interpretation.


Key concepts8

Key Concepts

When an answer is needed, proficient readers determine whether it can be answered by the text, whether they will need to infer the answer from the text and their background knowledge, or whether they will need to seek the answer elsewhere.


Key concepts9

Key Concepts

Proficient readers understand how the process of questioning is used in other areas of their lives.


Key concepts10

Key Concepts

Proficient readers understand how asking questions deepens their comprehension.


Key concepts11

Key Concepts

Proficient readers are aware that as they hear others’ questions, new ones are inspired in their own minds.


Key concepts12

Key Concepts

“I wonder...”


Key concepts13

Key Concepts

“Why...?”


Key concepts14

Key Concepts

“What...?”


Edward hopper nighthawks 1942

Edward Hopper, Nighthawks (1942)


Why what where who how

What questions do you have about this picture? Think of at least three questions to discuss with the rest of the class.


Edward hopper nighthawks 19421

Edward Hopper, Nighthawks (1942)


Why what where who how

While reading the following selection think of at least three questions to discuss at the end.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 1942

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

They sit in the bright cafe’

discussing Hemingway, and how

this war will change them.

Sinclair Lewis’ name comes up,

and Kay Boyle’s and then Fitzgerald’s.

They disagree about the American Dream.

My mother, her bare arms

silver under fluorescent lights,

says she imagines it a hawk

flying over, its shadow sweeping

every town.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19421

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

Their coffee’s getting cold

but they hardly notice. My mother’s face

is lit by ideas. My father’s gestures

are a Frenchman’s. When he concedes

a point, he shrugs, an elaborate lift

of the shoulders, his hands and smile

declaring an open mind.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19422

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

I am five months old, at home with a sitter

this August night, when the air outside

is warm as a bath. They decide,

though the car is parked nearby,

to walk the few blocks home, savoring

the fragrant night, their being alone together.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19423

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

As they go out the door, he’s reciting

Donne’s “Canonization”: “For God’s sake

hold your tongue, and let me love,”

and she is laughing, light

as summer rain when it begins.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19424

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

By Susan Ludvigson


Why what where who how

What kind of questions did this poem make you ask?


About the canonization by john donne

About: THE CANONIZATION.by John Donne

The speaker asks the addressee to be quiet, and let him love. If the the addressee cannot be quiet, the speaker tells him to criticize him for his other problems, but not for love. He asks the person speaking to him to mind his own business. The speaker does not care what the addressee says or does, as long as he lets him love.


Why what where who how

The speaker asks rhetorically, "Who's injured by my love?" He says that his sighs have not drowned ships, his tears have not flooded land, his colds have not chilled spring, and the heat of his veins has not added to the list of those killed by the plague. Soldiers still find wars and lawyers still find evil men, regardless of the emotions of the speaker and his lover.


Why what where who how

The speaker tells his addressee to "Call us what you will," for it is love that makes them so. No matter what the addressee calls them it is only love that will make it true. He says that they can die by love if they are not able to live by it, and if their legend is not fit "for tombs and hearse," it will be fit for poetry, and "We'll build in sonnets pretty rooms."


Why what where who how

A well-wrought urn does as much justice to a dead man's ashes as does a gigantic tomb; and by the same token, the poems about the speaker and his lover will cause them to be "canonized," admitted to the sainthood of love. All those who hear their story will invoke the lovers, saying that countries, towns, and courts "beg from above / A pattern of your love!"


Why what where who how

We are going to read an excerpt from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”


From mosaic susan s reflections

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

“Years ago, Ellin gave me a little book, The Poetry of Solitude: A Tribute to Edward Hopper, that is a collection of writers’ responses--in poetry and prose--to various paintings by Edward Hopper. For several paintings, multiple responses are included, showing how varied reactions can be to the same painting. The poets capture brush strokes in words, creating moods and anecdotes from Hopper’s works, which in turn create new moods and anecdotes. A deepening understanding results as images are transformed into words and words into thoughts.


From mosaic susan s reflections1

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

I pull out The Poetry of Solitude and land on ‘Inventing My Parents.’ As I read my mind fills with questions. Who are ‘they’? Where is the café? What led to their conversation about Hemingway? What war are they talking about? I notice the subtitle of the poem is ‘After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942,’ and immediately answer that question. It’s during World War II, fairly early in the war. Perhaps they are talking about Hemingway, because he wrote about the First World War in The Sun Also Rises and the Spanish Civil War in For Whom the Bell Tolls. War books that lead to war talk, I think.


From mosaic susan s reflections2

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

They are a well-educated couple having an intellectual conversation about literature against the backdrop of a terrible war. Does this animated conversation keep them from thinking of the horrors that are going on across oceans? What is their disagreement about the American Dream? What is the American Dream? The United States is a country of immigrants. Is it that if you come here and work hard, you can better yourself, you can create a good life? How true is that today?


From mosaic susan s reflections3

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

‘Says she imagines it a hawk flying over, its shadow sweeping every town.’ Is ‘it’ the war, a hawk casting a nightmarish shadow over the land, leaving everyone downcast and afraid? It is an ominous image. Are they so engrossed in their conversation they don’t notice the coffee cooling or are they sad, worried, distraught about the war? When will it end and what price will be paid in destruction and loss? Have they eaten and are they now buried in conversation, oblivious to everything except each other? ‘My mother’s face is lit by ideas.’ Is she always that way or is it this connection, this moment with her husband, sitting in a quiet café, that lights up her face?


From mosaic susan s reflections4

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

I want to know more about their relationship. I wonder what her background is, where she was raised, educated. ‘My father’s gestures are a Frenchman’s, quick and expressive? Has he conceded a point here? About the American Dream? I see the shrug, his hands raised and open in front of him, the tilt of his head, the smile of accepted defeat.


From mosaic susan s reflections5

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

‘I am five months old.’ Wait a minute. Where did this character come from? Why did the author make the narrator a five-month-old baby? Is a five-month-old picturing this scene? No, I’m guessing the narrator is much older now. She’s looking back, imagining her parents, or perhaps imagining the parents she wished she had. Is this time alone together something they rarely have? Is that why they come across as romantic? What is their love like five years hence, twenty-five years? Were they real people? How did their lives unfold? Are they still alive?


From mosaic susan s reflections6

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

They leave their car and walk home. Can they do that and just pick it up the next day? Are there lots of parking spots and is it no problem to abandon a car for a night? Are they desperate to lengthen this sweet moment together and is that why they chose to walk?


From mosaic susan s reflections7

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

I’m at the reference to Donne’s ‘The Canonization.’ They seem so well educated. Are they college professors, writers themselves? The quote ‘For God’s sake hold your tongue, and let me love’--is he using it to further seduce and delight her? If so, he is accomplishing that well. She laughs, ‘light as summer rain when it begins.’


From mosaic susan s reflections8

from Mosaic -“Susan’s Reflections”

I interact with the words, moving form trivial question about parked cars to questions about the nature of love, to questions about war and human nature that can never be answered. Questions lead me to unexpected places and keep me intrigued. For me, questions about war and human nature that can never be answered. Questions lead me to unexpected places and keep me intrigued. For me, questions are the glue of engagement.”


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19425

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

They sit in the bright cafe’

discussing Hemingway, and how

this war will change them.

Sinclair Lewis’ name comes up,

and Kay Boyle’s and then Fitzgerald’s.

They disagree about the American Dream.

My mother, her bare arms

silver under fluorescent lights,

says she imagines it a hawk

flying over, its shadow sweeping

every town.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19426

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

Their coffee’s getting cold

but they hardly notice. My mother’s face

is lit by ideas. My father’s gestures

are a Frenchman’s. When he concedes

a point, he shrugs, an elaborate lift

of the shoulders, his hands and smile

declaring an open mind.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19427

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

I am five months old, at home with a sitter

this August night, when the air outside

is warm as a bath. They decide,

though the car is parked nearby,

to walk the few blocks home, savoring

the fragrant night, their being alone together.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19428

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

As they go out the door, he’s reciting

Donne’s “Canonization”: “For God’s sake

hold your tongue, and let me love,”

and she is laughing, light

as summer rain when it begins.


Inventing my parents after edward hopper s nighthawks 19429

“Inventing My Parents”After Edward Hopper’s Nighthawks, 1942

By Susan Ludvigson


Why what where who how

As we read the following stories think of three questions from each to discuss with the class. (Jot them down)


Custodian by brian hinshaw 1996 world s greatest short short story contest florida sate university

“Custodian”By Brian Hinshaw(1996 World’s Greatest Short, Short Story Contest, Florida Sate University)

“The job would get boring if you didn’t mix it up a little. Like this woman in 14-A, the nurses called her The Mockingbird, start any song and this old lady would sing it through. Couldn’t speak, couldn’t eat a lick of solid food, had to be straightened out of her sleeping position each morning, but she sang like a house on fire.


Custodian by brian hinshaw 1996 world s greatest short short story contest florida sate university1

“Custodian”By Brian Hinshaw(1996 World’s Greatest Short, Short Story Contest, Florida Sate University)

So for a kick I would go in there with my mop and such, prop the door open with the bucket, and set her going. She was best at the songs you’d sing with a group, “Oh, Susanna,” campfire stuff. Any kind of Christmas song worked well too, and it always cracked up the nurses if I could get her into “Let It Snow” during a heat spell.


Custodian by brian hinshaw 1996 world s greatest short short story contest florida sate university2

“Custodian”By Brian Hinshaw(1996 World’s Greatest Short, Short Story Contest, Florida Sate University)

We’d try to make her take up a song from the radio or some of the old songs with cursing in them but she would never go for those. Although once I had her doing “How Dry I Am” while Nurse Wichell fussed with the catheter.


Custodian by brian hinshaw 1996 world s greatest short short story contest florida sate university3

“Custodian”By Brian Hinshaw(1996 World’s Greatest Short, Short Story Contest, Florida Sate University)

Yesterday, her daughter or maybe granddaughter comes in while 14-A and I were partways into “Auld Lang Syne” and the daughter says, “Oh oh oh” like she had interrupted scintillating conversation. She takes a long look at 14-A lying there in the gurney with her eyes shut and her curled-up hands, taking a cup of kindness yet.


Custodian by brian hinshaw 1996 world s greatest short short story contest florida sate university4

“Custodian”By Brian Hinshaw(1996 World’s Greatest Short, Short Story Contest, Florida Sate University)

And the daughter looks at me the way a girl does at the end of an old movie and she says, ‘My god, you’re an angel,’ and now I can’t do it anymore, can hardly step inside the room.”


Why what where who how

What questions do you have about Custodian?


Questioning the author

Questioning the Author

How does it work?

  • What is the author trying to tell you?

  • Why is the author telling you that?

  • Does the author say it clearly?

  • How could the author have said things more clearly?

  • What would you say instead?

  • Was the question answered in the text, do you need to infer the answer, or do you need to seek the answer elsewhere?


Markings by dag hammarskjold

MarkingsBy Dag Hammarskjold

“He came with his little girl. She wore her best frock. You noticed what good care she took of it. Others noticed too—idly noticed that, last year, it had been the best frock on another little girl.


Markings by dag hammarskjold1

MarkingsBy Dag Hammarskjold

In the morning sunshine it had been festive. Now most people had gone home. The balloon sellers were counting the day’s takings. Even the sun had followed their example, and retired to rest behind a cloud. So the place looked rather bleak and deserted when he came with his little girl to taste the joy of Spring and warm himself in the freshly polished Easter sun.


Markings by dag hammarskjold2

MarkingsBy Dag Hammarskjold

But she was happy. They both were. They had learned a humility of which you still have no conception. A humility which never makes comparisons, never rejects what there is for the sake of something ‘else’ or something ‘more.’”


Why what where who how

What questions do you have about Markings?


Questioning the author1

Questioning the Author

How does it work?

  • What is the author trying to tell you?

  • Why is the author telling you that?

  • Does the author say it clearly?

  • How could the author have said things more clearly?

  • What would you say instead?

  • Was the question answered in the text, do you need to infer the answer, or do you need to seek the answer elsewhere?


Little brother by bruce holland rogers

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Peter had wanted a Little Brother™ for three Christmases in a row. His favorite TV commercials were the ones that showed just how much fun he would have teaching Little Brother™ to do all the things that he could already do himself. But every year, Mommy had said that Peter wasn't ready for a Little Brother™. Until this year.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers1

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

This year when Peter ran into the living room, there sat Little Brother™ among all the wrapped presents, babbling baby talk, smiling his happy smile, and patting one of the packages with his fat little hand. Peter was so excited that he ran up and gave Little Brother™ a big hug around the neck. That was how he found out about the button.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers2

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Peter's hand pushed against something cold on Little Brother™'s neck, and suddenly Little Brother™ wasn't babbling any more, or even sitting up. Suddenly, Little Brother™ was limp on the floor, as lifeless as any ordinary doll.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers3

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"Peter!" Mommy said.

"I didn't mean to!"


Little brother by bruce holland rogers4

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Mommy picked up Little Brother™, sat him in her lap, and pressed the black button at the back of his neck. Little Brother™'s face came alive, and it wrinkled up as if he were about to cry, but Mommy bounced him on her knee and told him what a good boy he was. He didn't cry after all.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers5

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"Little Brother™ isn't like your other toys, Peter," Mommy said. "You have to be extra careful with him, as if he were a real baby." She put Little Brother™ down on the floor, and he took tottering baby steps toward Peter. "Why don't you let him help open your other presents?"


Little brother by bruce holland rogers6

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

So that's what Peter did. He showed Little Brother™ how to tear the paper and open the boxes. The other toys were a fire engine, some talking books, a wagon, and lots and lots of wooden blocks. The fire engine was the second-best present. It had lights, a siren, and hoses that blew green gas just like the real thing. There weren't as many presents as last year, Mommy explained, because Little Brother™ was expensive. That was okay. Little Brother™ was the best present ever!


Little brother by bruce holland rogers7

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Well, that's what Peter thought at first. At first, everything that Little Brother™ did was funny and wonderful. Peter put all the torn wrapping paper in the wagon, and Little Brother™ took it out again and threw it on the floor. Peter started to read a talking book, and Little Brother™ came and turned the pages too fast for the book to keep up.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers8

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

But then, while Mommy went to the kitchen to cook breakfast, Peter tried to show Little Brother™ how to build a very tall tower out of blocks. Little Brother™ wasn't interested in seeing a really tall tower. Every time Peter had a few blocks stacked up, Little Brother™ swatted the tower with his hand and laughed. Peter laughed, too, for the first time, and the second. But then he said, "Now watch this time. I'm going to make it really big."


Little brother by bruce holland rogers9

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

But Little Brother™ didn't watch. The tower was only a few blocks tall when he knocked it down.

"No!" Peter said. He grabbed hold of Little Brother™'s arm. "Don't!"

Little Brother™'s face wrinkled. He was getting ready to cry.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers10

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Peter looked toward the kitchen and let go. "Don't cry," he said. "Look, I'm building another one! Watch me build it!"

Little Brother™ watched. Then he knocked the tower down.

Peter had an idea.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers11

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

When Mommy came into the living room again, Peter had built a tower that was taller than he was, the best tower he had ever made. "Look!" he said.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers12

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

But Mommy didn't even look at the tower. "Peter!" She picked up Little Brother™, put him on her lap, and pressed the button to turn him back on. As soon as he was on, Little Brother™ started to scream. His face turned red.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers13

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"I didn't mean to!"

"Peter, I told you! He's not like your other toys. When you turn him off, he can't move but he can still see and hear. He can still feel. And it scares him."


Little brother by bruce holland rogers14

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"He was knocking down my blocks."

"Babies do things like that," Mommy said. "That's what it's like to have a baby brother."


Little brother by bruce holland rogers15

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Little Brother™ howled.

"He's mine," Peter said too quietly for Mommy to hear. But when Little Brother™ had calmed down, Mommy put him back on the floor and Peter let him toddle over and knock down the tower.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers16

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Mommy told Peter to clean up the wrapping paper, and she went back into the kitchen. Peter had already picked up the wrapping paper once, and she hadn't said thank you. She hadn't even noticed.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers17

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Peter wadded the paper into angry balls and threw them one at a time into the wagon until it was almost full. That's when Little Brother™ broke the fire engine. Peter turned just in time to see him lift the engine up over his head and let it drop.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers18

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"No!" Peter shouted. The windshield cracked and popped out as the fire engine hit the floor. Broken. Peter hadn't even played with it once, and his best Christmas present was broken.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers19

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

Later, when Mommy came into the living room, she didn't thank Peter for picking up all the wrapping paper. Instead, she scooped up Little Brother™ and turned him on again. He trembled and screeched louder than ever.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers20

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"My God! How long has he been off?" Mommy demanded.

"I don't like him!"

"Peter, it scares him! Listen to him!"


Little brother by bruce holland rogers21

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"I hate him! Take him back!"

"You are not to turn him off again. Ever!"

"He's mine!" Peter shouted. "He's mine and I can do what I want with him! He broke my fire engine!"


Little brother by bruce holland rogers22

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"He's a baby!"

"He's stupid! I hate him! Take him back!"

"You are going to learn to be nice with him."


Little brother by bruce holland rogers23

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"I'll turn him off if you don't take him back. I'll turn him off and hide him someplace where you can't find him!"

"Peter!" Mommy said, and she was angry. She was angrier than he'd ever seen her before. She put Little Brother™ down and took a step toward Peter. She would punish him. Peter didn't care. He was angry, too.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers24

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

"I'll do it!" he yelled. "I'll turn him off and hide him someplace dark!"

"You'll do no such thing!" Mommy said. She grabbed his arm and spun him around. The spanking would come next.


Little brother by bruce holland rogers25

Little Brother™By Bruce Holland Rogers

But it didn't. Instead he felt her fingers searching for something at the back of his neck.


Why what where who how

What questions do you have about Little Brother™?


Questioning the author2

Questioning the Author

How does it work?

  • What is the author trying to tell you?

  • Why is the author telling you that?

  • Does the author say it clearly?

  • How could the author have said things more clearly?

  • What would you say instead?

  • Was the question answered in the text, do you need to infer the answer, or do you need to seek the answer elsewhere?


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