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Ad Hoc Wireless Routing CS 215 - Winter 2001. Review of conventional routing schemes Proactive wireless routing schemes Hierarchical routing Reactive (on demand) wireless schemes. Wireless multihop routing challenges. mobility need to scale to large numbers (100’s to 1000's)

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Ad hoc wireless routing cs 215 winter 2001
Ad Hoc Wireless RoutingCS 215 - Winter 2001

  • Review of conventional routing schemes

  • Proactive wireless routing schemes

  • Hierarchical routing

  • Reactive (on demand) wireless schemes


Wireless multihop routing challenges
Wireless multihop routing challenges

  • mobility

  • need to scale to large numbers (100’s to 1000's)

  • unreliable radio channel (fading etc)

  • limited bandwidth

  • limited power

  • need to support multimedia (QoS)


Proposed routing approaches
Proposed Routing Approaches

  • Conventional wired-type schemes (global routing, proactive):

    • Distance Vector; Link State

  • Hierarchical (global routing) schemes:

    • Fisheye, Hierarchical State Routing, Landmark Routing

  • On- Demand, reactive routing:

    • Source routing; backward learning

  • Location Assisted routing (Geo-routing):

    • DREAM, LAR etc


Conventional wired routing limitations
Conventional wired routing limitations

  • Distance Vector (eg, Bellman-Ford, DSDV):

    • routing control O/H linearly increasing with net size

    • convergence problems (count to infinity); potential loops

  • Link State (eg, OSPF):

    • link update flooding O/H caused by frequent topology changes

      CONVENTIONAL ROUTING DOES NOT SCALE TO SIZE AND MOBILITY


Distance vector
Distance Vector

0

Routing table at node 5 :

1

3

2

4

5


Link state routing

1

Link State Routing

  • At node 5, based on the link state pkts, topology table is constructed:

  • Dijkstra’s Algorithm can then be used for the shortest path

0

{1}

{0,2,3}

{1,4}

3

2

{1,4,5}

4

{2,3,5}

5

{2,4}


APPROACH: use hierarchical routing to reduce table size and table update overhead

Proposed hierarchical schemes:

  • Fisheye (implicit hierarchy induced by "scope")

  • Hierarchical State Routing

  • Zone routing (hybrid scheme)

  • Landmark Routing


Fisheye state routing
Fisheye State Routing table update overhead

  • Topology data base at each node - similar to link state (e.g., OSPF)

  • Routing information is periodically exchanged with neighbors only

    • similar to distance vector

  • Routing update frequency decreases with distance to destination

    • Higher frequency updates within a close zone and lower frequency updates to a remote zone

    • Highly accurate routing information about the immediate neighborhood of a node; progressively less detail for areas further away from the node


Scope of fisheye

2 table update overhead

8

3

5

9

1

9

4

6

Hop=1

7

10

12

13

Hop=2

19

18

21

11

Hop>2

15

22

36

14

23

17

16

20

29

35

27

25

24

26

28

34

30

32

31

Scope of Fisheye


Message reduction in fsr
Message Reduction in FSR table update overhead

LST

HOP

0

LST

HOP

0:{1}

1:{0,2,3}

2:{5,1,4}

3:{1,4}

4:{5,2,3}

5:{2,4}

1

0

1

1

2

2

0:{1}

1:{0,2,3}

2:{5,1,4}

3:{1,4}

4:{5,2,3}

5:{2,4}

2

1

2

0

1

2

1

3

LST

HOP

2

0:{1}

1:{0,2,3}

2:{5,1,4}

3:{1,4}

4:{5,2,3}

5:{2,4}

2

2

1

1

0

1

4

5


Hierarchical state routing hsr
Hierarchical State Routing (HSR) table update overhead

  • Main challenge: maintain/update the hierarchical partitions in the face of mobility

  • Solution: distinguish between “physical” partitions and “logical” grouping

    • physical partitions are based on geographical proximity

    • logical grouping is based on functional affinity between nodes (e.g., tanks of same battalion, students of same class)

  • Physical partitions enable reduction of routing overhead

  • Logical groupings enable efficient location management strategies using Home Agent concepts


Hsr physical multilevel partitions

3 table update overhead

1

Level = 2

2

3

1

Level = 1

4

2

8

9

6

3

1

Level = 0

10

11

7

5

4

HSR - physical multilevel partitions

HSR table at node 5:

DestID

1

6

7

<1-2->

<1-4->

<3-->

Path

5-1

5-1-6

5-7

5-1-6

5-7

5-7

HID(5): <1-1-5>

HID(6): <3-2-6>

Hierarchical addresses

(MAC addresses)


Hsr logical partitions and location management
HSR - logical partitions and location management table update overhead

  • Logical (IP like) type address <subnet,host>

    • Each subnet corresponds to a particular user group (e.g., tank battalion in the battlefield, search team in a search and rescue operation, etc)

    • logical subnet spans several physical clusters

    • Nodes in same subnet tend to have common mobility characteristic (i.e., locality)

    • logical address is totally distinct from MAC address


Hsr logical partitions and location management cont d
HSR - logical partitions and location management (cont’d) table update overhead

  • Each subnetwork has at least one Home Agent to manage membership

  • Each member of the subnet registers its own hierarchical address with Home Agent

    • periodical/event driven registration; stale addresses are timed out by Home Agent

  • Home Agent hierarchical addresses propagated via routing tables; or queried at a Name Server


Landmark routing
Landmark Routing table update overhead

  • Based on logical groupings as in HSR

  • A Landmark node is elected in each logical subnet (similar to Home Agent concept)

  • Routing to a remote group is summarized by the route to the corresponding Landmark

  • The routing information exchange is similar to FSR, with following modifications:

    • only landmark nodes are included in each update

    • the update frequency of landmark nodes is same as that of intra-scope update

  • As a result, each node maintains accurate routes to its neighbors as well as to landmark nodes


Landmark routing1
Landmark Routing table update overhead


On demand routing protocols
On-Demand Routing Protocols table update overhead

  • Routes are established “on demand” as requested by the source

  • Only the active routes are maintained by each node

  • Channel/Memory overhead is minimized

  • Two leading methods for route discovery: source routing and backward learning (similar to LAN interconnection routing)


Existing on demand protocols
Existing On-Demand Protocols table update overhead

  • Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)

  • Associativity-Based Routing (ABR)

  • Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV)

  • Temporarily Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)

  • Zone Routing Protocol (ZRP)

  • Signal Stability Based Adaptive Routing (SSA)


Dynamic source routing dsr
Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) table update overhead

  • Uses source routing instead of hop-by-hop routing

  • No periodic routing update message is sent

  • Nodes ignore topology changes not affecting active routes with packets in the pipe

  • The first path discovered is selected as the route

  • Two main phases

    • Route Discovery

    • Route Maintenance


Dsr route discovery
DSR - Route Discovery table update overhead

  • To establish a route, the source floods a Route Request message with a unique request ID

  • Route Reply message containing path information is sent back to the source either by

    • the destination, or

    • intermediate nodes that have a route to the destination

  • Each node maintains a Route Cache which records routes it has learned and overheard over time


Dsr route maintenance
DSR - Route Maintenance table update overhead

  • Route maintenance performed only while route is in use

  • Monitors the validity of existing routes by passively listening to acknowledgments of data packets transmitted to neighboring nodes

  • When problem detected, send Route Error packet to original sender to perform new route discovery


Ad hoc on demand distance vector routing aodv
Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV) table update overhead

  • Primary Objectives

    • Provide unicast, broadcast, and multicast capability

    • Initiate forward route discovery only on demand

    • Disseminate changes in local connectivity to those neighboring nodes likely to need the information

  • Characteristics

    • On-demand route creation

      • Effect of topology changes is localized

      • Control traffic is minimized

    • Two dimensional routing metric: <Seq#, HopCount>

    • Storage of routes in Route Table


Route Table table update overhead

  • Fields:

    • Destination IP Address

    • Destination Sequence Number

    • HopCount

    • Next Hop IP Address

    • Precursor Nodes

    • Expiration Time

  • Each time a route entry is used to transmit data, the expiration time is updated to

    • current_time + active_route_timeout

Precursor Nodes

Next Hop

A

Destination

Source

Source


Unicast Route Discovery table update overhead

  • Source broadcasts Route Request (RREQ)

  • <Flags, Bcast_ID, HopCnt, Src_Addr, Src_Seq#, Dst_Addr, Dst_Seq#>

  • Node can reply to RREQ if

    • It is the destination, or

    • It has a “fresh enough” route to the destination

  • Otherwise it rebroadcasts the request

  • Nodes create reverse route entry

  • Record Src IP Addr / Broadcast ID to prevent multiple rebroadcasts

  • Source

    Destination

    Route Request Propagation


    Forward Path Setup table update overhead

    • Destination, or intermediate node with current route to destination, unicasts Route Reply (RREP) to source

      • <Flags, HopCnt, Dst_Addr, Dst_Seq#, Src_Addr, Lifetime>

    • Nodes along path createforward route

    • Source begins sending data when it receives first RREP

    Source

    Destination

    Forward Path Formation


    Path maintenance
    Path Maintenance table update overhead

    3’

    3’

    3

    1

    1

    Destination

    Destination

    2

    2

    Source

    Source

    4

    4

    • Movement of nodes not along active path does not trigger protocol action

    • If source node moves, it can reinitiate route discovery

    • When destination or intermediate node moves, upstream node of break broadcasts Route Error (RERR) message

    • RERR contains list of all destinations no longer reachable due to link break

    • RERR propagated until node with no precursors for destination is reached


    Glomosim simulation layers

    Application Processing table update overhead

    Application Setup

    Application

    RTP Wrapper

    RCTP

    Transport Wrapper

    TCP/UDP Control

    Transport

    RSVP

    IP Wrapper

    IP

    IP/Mobile IP

    Routing

    VC

    Handle

    Flow

    Control

    Routing

    Clustering

    Packet Store/Forward

    Network

    Link Layer

    Packet Store/Forward

    Ack/Flow Control

    Clustering

    MAC Layer

    Frame Wrapper

    RTS/CTS

    CS/Radio Setup

    Frame Processing

    Radio Status/Setup

    Radio

    Propagation Model

    Mobility

    Channel

    GloMoSim Simulation Layers

    Control Plane

    Data Plane


    Performance evaluation enviroment
    Performance Evaluation Enviroment table update overhead

    • PARSEC simulation enviroment

      • 100 nodes

      • 1000mx1000m square area

      • transmission range: 100m

      • channel data rate: 2 Mbps

      • random mobility model

      • UDP traffic between randomly selected node pairs

      • cluster-token MAC layer protocol

    • HSR

      • 2 level physical partition

      • 1 level logical groupings, number of logical subnets varies with network size

    • FSR

      • 2 level fisheye scoping

      • fisheye radius is 2 hops


    Control o h vs number of nodes
    Control O/H vs. number of nodes table update overhead


    Control o h vs traffic pairs
    Control O/H vs. Traffic Pairs table update overhead



    Average delay ms
    Average Delay (ms) table update overhead


    Location aided routing lar
    Location-Aided Routing (LAR) table update overhead

    • Ko and Vaidya (Texas A & M)

    • Location assisted (requires GPS)

    • On-demand

    • No periodic messages

    • LAR works like DSR except it limits the flooded area of Route Requests using location information


    Lar cont d
    LAR (cont’d) table update overhead

    • Scheme 1

      • The source specifies a request zone which includes the source and the area where the destination may reside

      • Nodes within the request zone propagate Route Requests

    • Scheme 2

      • The source specifies the distance between itself and the destination

      • Nodes forward Route Requests if their distances to the destination is less than or equal to the distance indicated by the packet


    Dream
    DREAM table update overhead

    • Besagni, et al. (U of Texas, Dallas)

    • Location assisted (requires GPS)

    • Node coordinates (instead of routes) are recorded in the route table

    • Distance Effect: Send location updates to nearby nodes more frequently

    • Location update frequencies are adjusted to mobility rate


    Dream cont d
    DREAM (cont’d) table update overhead

    • The source partially floods data to nodes that are in the direction of the destination

    • The source specifies possible next hops in the data header using location information

    • Next hop nodes select their own list of next hops and include the list into data header

    • If the source finds no neighbors in the direction of the destination or has no fresh location information of the destination, data is flooded to the entire network


    Location based routing simulation lar and dream
    Location Based Routing Simulation table update overhead(LAR and DREAM)

    • 50 nodes; 750m X 750 m space

    • Free space channel propagation model

    • Radio with capture ability

    • MAC: IEEE 802.11 DCF

    • 10 UDP data sessions with constant bit rate


    Simulation results cont d
    Simulation Results (cont’d) table update overhead

    • Packet delivery ratio


    Simulation results
    Simulation Results table update overhead

    • Number of data packets transmitted per data packet delivered


    Simulation results cont d1
    Simulation Results (cont’d) table update overhead

    • Number of control bytes transmitted per data byte delivered


    Conclusions
    Conclusions table update overhead

    • Conventional (wired net) routing schemes suffer of O/H, mobility and scalability limitations

    • Hierarchical routing reduces O/H and improves scalability (at the expense of accuracy).

    • On Demand routing eliminates background routing control O/H. It introduces latency; it does not support QoS routing


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