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What are these cells? How are they specialised to perform their function?. Cell Specialisation. Define terms differentiation & specialisation -erythrocytes, neutrophils , epithelial cells, sperm cells, palisade cells, root hair cells, xylem, Phloem & cambium.

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Cell specialisation

Cell Specialisation

Define terms differentiation & specialisation

-erythrocytes, neutrophils, epithelial cells, sperm cells, palisade cells, root hair cells, xylem, Phloem & cambium


Which organism has the highest surface area to volume ratio?

The single celled Amoeba

Polar bear or other multi cellular organism


Which organism has the highest surface area to volume ratio?

The single celled Amoeba

12:8 = 3:2

Polar bear or other multi cellular organism

20:25


Single celled organisms

Multi-cellular organisms

  • Large s/a: volume

  • All cells exposed to environment

  • Effective exchange surface-for what?

  • All cells perform all functions

  • Smaller s/a: volume

  • Not all cells in contact with external environment

  • Therefore: Specialised cells to perform different functions


Young cell

Cell division

Cell growth

Cell specialisation

Mature cell

-Unlikely or unable to divide again

  • What is Differentiation

  • When a cell becomes specialised to carry out a particular job/function

  • What categories of differentiation are there?

  • Change number of particular organelle e.g. muscle cell

  • Change the shape of the cell e.g. root hair cell

  • Change some of the contents of the cell e.g. RBC

  • ALL 3!!


In your group, split the cells between you. Research your cell. Later you will need to explain your findings to the rest of the group


What are tissues, organs and organ systems? cell. Later you will need to explain your findings to the rest of the group

  • Write a definition and an example of the following on the yellow post-its and stick under the appropriate heading:

  • Tissue

  • Organ

  • Organ system

  • .


What are tissues, organs and organ systems? cell. Later you will need to explain your findings to the rest of the group

Cells make up TISSUES, groups of the same kind of cells performing a common function e.g. xylem and phloem in plants, muscle tissue in animals

Groups of different types of tissues are arranged together to form organs e.g. the stomach consists of mucus membrane tissue, muscle tissue, etc

Organs are grouped into systems e.g. respiratory system, reproductive system. organ systems consist of a number of organs working together to perform an overall life function

.


Group essay
Group Essay cell. Later you will need to explain your findings to the rest of the group

  • In this question, one mark is available for the quality of spelling, punctuation and grammar.

  • Below is a picture of blood showing both red and white blood cells.

  • Describe how red blood cells, such as those shown in the picture are adapted for their function.

  • (Allow one lined page). [6]

  • Quality of Written Communication [1]

  • [Total 7 marks]

  • Think about the other side of the course too!!


1 haemoglobin/ cell. Later you will need to explain your findings to the rest of the grouphaem, carries oxygen/AW;

2 detail of no. of oxygen molecules carried;

3 small size/large SA:V ratio, so haemoglobin never far from cellsurface/AW;

4 flexible/elastic/stretchy/changes shape/AW;

5 small size/‘stretchiness’/AW, allows red cells to, fit/squeeze, intocapillaries;

6 biconcave/AW [A ‘dimpled’], gives, increased/AW, surface arearelative to volume (for diffusion);

7 no nucleus to maximise room for, haemoglobin/oxygen/AW;

8 contain carbonic anhydrase;

9 describe, the reaction catalysed by carbonic anhydrase/role inmaintenance of diffusion gradient/AW;

10 transport of carbon dioxide as carbamino-haemoglobin/CO2combines with Hb;

11 ref buffering effect;

AVP; e.g. further detail of oxygen carriage variable oxidation state of Feidea that small size allows them to be close to tissue or cells lack of, other/named, named organelles, also increases room for Hb/O2 max 6

QWC – legible text with accurate spelling, punctuation and grammar; 1[7]


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