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Engine Operation. Chapter 3. Engine Components • Four-Stroke Cycle Engines • Two-Stroke Cycle Engines • Valving Systems • Diesel Engines • Turbo Chargers • Engine Output.

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Engine Operation

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Engine operation
Engine Operation

Chapter 3

Engine Components • Four-Stroke Cycle Engines • Two-Stroke Cycle Engines • Valving Systems • Diesel Engines • Turbo Chargers • Engine Output


Engine operation

The engine block is the main structure of the engine which helps maintain alignment of internal and external engine components.



Engine operation

The crankcase breather functions as a check valve to maintain crankcase pressure and to route gases to the carburetor.


Engine operation

Cast aluminum alloy cylinder blocks with cast iron cylinder sleeves combine the light weight of aluminum with the durability of cast iron.


Engine operation

The head gasket is placed between the cylinder block and cylinder head to seal the combustion chamber and to provide even heat distribution.



Engine operation

The piston acts as the movable end of the combustion chamber and is designed to utilize the forces and heat created during engine operation.


Engine operation

Piston rings commonly used on small engines include the compression ring, wiper ring, and oil ring.


Engine operation

A connecting rod is designed to withstand sudden impact stresses from combustion and piston movement.


Engine operation

Bearings and bearing surfaces are subjected to radial, axial (thrust), or a combination of radial and axial loads.


Engine operation

Small engines commonly have two main bearings to provide a low-friction bearing surface on each end of the crankshaft.


Engine operation

Rod bearings provide a low-friction pivot point between the connecting rod and the crankshaft and the connecting rod and piston.


Engine operation

The flywheel supplies inertia to dampen acceleration forces caused by combustion intervals in an engine.


Engine operation

The intake event occurs when the air-fuel mixture is introduced into the combustion chamber as the piston moves from TDC to BDC.


Engine operation

The compression event is an engine operation event in which the trapped air-fuel mixture is compressed to form the charge.


Engine operation

The compression ratio of an engine is a comparison of the volume of the combustion chamber with the piston at BDC and TDC.


Engine operation

During the ignition event, atmospheric oxygen and fuel vapor in the charge are consumed by the progressing flame front.




Engine operation

Valve overlap is the period between the exhaust event and the intake event when the piston nears TDC.



Engine operation

Two-stroke valves are widely used in the outdoor power equipment industry for hand-held equipment applications such as chain saws, trimmers, and leaf blowers.


Engine operation

Valves seal the combustion chamber to control the flow of air-fuel mixture into the cylinder and exhaust gases out of the cylinder.



Engine operation

Timing marks on the cam gear and crankgear indicate the proper gear teeth mesh required to prevent damage to engine components.


Engine operation

Valving systems on two-stroke cycle engines require fewer parts and are less complicated than four-stroke cycle engine valving systems.


Engine operation

Diesel engines use an injection pump to deliver pressurized fuel to the cylinder at precise intervals.


Engine operation

The injector is hydraulically activated by the pressurized fuel delivered from the injection pump.



Engine operation

Load is increased or decreased by adding or removing water from the impeller housing of a water dynamometer.


Engine operation

The electric dynamometer measures brake horsepower by converting mechanical energy into electrical energy.


Engine operation

The eddy current dynamometer measures engine torque using load from the magnetic field produced by current in eddy current coils.


Engine operation

The prony brake dynamometer measures engine torque using an adjustable brake that exerts pressure on a spring scale.



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